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Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

Article about: As my first posting in the newly created Aviation Forum, I would like to introduce you all to Major Harry L. Wingate. This grouping highlights the contribution of the unsung heroes of WWI av

  1. #31

    Default Re: Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

    One last shot.
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture Click image for larger version. 

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    [B][COLOR=Black][SIZE=3][FONT=Book Antiqua][I] Steve[/I][/FONT][/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]

    [CENTER][I][FONT=Georgia][COLOR=orange]Did you ever get the feeling that the world was a tuxedo and you were a pair of brown shoes?[/COLOR][/FONT]
    [/I][/CENTER]
    [B]
    [SIZE=3][COLOR=lemonchiffon][I][CENTER][FONT=Georgia]"Fly on dear boy, from this dark world of strife. On to the promised land to eternal life"[/FONT][/CENTER]
    [/I][/COLOR][/SIZE][/B]

  2. #32

    Default Re: Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

    Here is a large photo of the Major wearing the same uniform and wing shown in this thread.
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture Click image for larger version. 

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    [B][COLOR=Black][SIZE=3][FONT=Book Antiqua][I] Steve[/I][/FONT][/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]

    [CENTER][I][FONT=Georgia][COLOR=orange]Did you ever get the feeling that the world was a tuxedo and you were a pair of brown shoes?[/COLOR][/FONT]
    [/I][/CENTER]
    [B]
    [SIZE=3][COLOR=lemonchiffon][I][CENTER][FONT=Georgia]"Fly on dear boy, from this dark world of strife. On to the promised land to eternal life"[/FONT][/CENTER]
    [/I][/COLOR][/SIZE][/B]

  3. #33

    Default Re: Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

    The student's progression through these fields at Issoudun was typically as follows:

    1. Start at Field 1
    2. Walk over to Field 2
    3. Progress to Field 3
    4. Go to Field 9 for introduction to the Nieuport 18M (Graduates either proceeded to Field 10 for 2-seater training or to Field 4 for pursuit training
    5. Field 4 for spiral turns
    6. Field 5 for taxiing, taking off, and landing and wing slips
    7. Field 6 for advanced acrobatics (NO)
    8. Field 9 for training with Nieuport 15M with 80 HP engine
    9. Field 7 for training with Nieuport 15M with 120 HP engine
    10. Field 8 for aerial combat training
    11. Field 14 for machine gun training

    Aircraft used at each field were as follows:

    Field 1: Morane rouleurs (preliminary training)
    Field 2: Nieuport 23M, 80 HP dual control aircraft
    Field 3: Nieuport 23M, 80 HP single seat (solo) aircraft
    Field 4: Nieuport 18M, 80 HP (Feb-July 1918 only. After that part of Fields 5 & 6).
    Field 5: Nieuport 15M, 80 HP and 120 HP aircraft with instruction in taxiing, taking off, and landing
    Field 6: Nieuport 15M with 120 HP engine with instruction in advanced acrobatics
    Field 7: Formation flying and patrol tactics using 120 HP Nieuport 15M aircraft
    Field 8: Introduction to Aerial Combat using 120 HP Nieuport 15M aircraft
    Field 9: Nieuport 18M, 80 HP from 1 July 1918 to the end of the war
    Field 10: DH-4 aircraft for observation pilot training (opened late in the war)
    Fields 11 and 12: Not put into operation.
    Field 14: Machine gun training using Nieuport 24 aircraft

    Operating the 3rd Aviation Instruction Center required a large number of organizations. Serving at Issoudun were the following U.S. Aero Squadrons: 10th, 21st, 26th, 30th, 31st, 32nd, 33rd, 35th, 37th, 43rd, 101st, 149th, 158th, 173rd, 257, 369th, 372nd, 374th, 640th, 641st, 642nd, 644th, 801st, 802nd, and 1104th


    I think this grouping will yield much more as the research developes; there are so many possibilities that radiate from Major Wingate's far reaching and significant contributions.
    [B][COLOR=Black][SIZE=3][FONT=Book Antiqua][I] Steve[/I][/FONT][/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]

    [CENTER][I][FONT=Georgia][COLOR=orange]Did you ever get the feeling that the world was a tuxedo and you were a pair of brown shoes?[/COLOR][/FONT]
    [/I][/CENTER]
    [B]
    [SIZE=3][COLOR=lemonchiffon][I][CENTER][FONT=Georgia]"Fly on dear boy, from this dark world of strife. On to the promised land to eternal life"[/FONT][/CENTER]
    [/I][/COLOR][/SIZE][/B]

  4. #34

    Default Re: Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

    This is a letter written by then Cpt. Wingate to Col. Gerrell during the occupation regarding his perceptions about inefficiencies observed during the war. It is very interesting to get a look into the false perceptions that cavalry, or infantry officers were qualified to perform efficiently and effectively in the fledgling Air Service with ill preparation/training in the specifics of this very different branch of service.
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture Click image for larger version. 

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    [B][COLOR=Black][SIZE=3][FONT=Book Antiqua][I] Steve[/I][/FONT][/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]

    [CENTER][I][FONT=Georgia][COLOR=orange]Did you ever get the feeling that the world was a tuxedo and you were a pair of brown shoes?[/COLOR][/FONT]
    [/I][/CENTER]
    [B]
    [SIZE=3][COLOR=lemonchiffon][I][CENTER][FONT=Georgia]"Fly on dear boy, from this dark world of strife. On to the promised land to eternal life"[/FONT][/CENTER]
    [/I][/COLOR][/SIZE][/B]

  5. #35

    Default Re: Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

    I have been doing some more research and I came up with some fascinating information on the specifics of training at Field #8 of which Maj. Wingate was in charge.

    Here are some excerpts from the book entitled "AN EXPLORER IN THE AIR SERVICE" written in 1920 by Hiram Bingham, Lt. Col., US Air Service



    Instructors sacrifices

    "With true American devotion to high ideals, the great
    majority of the first-class pilots selected as instructors cheer-
    fully gave up the chance of becoming aces themselves in
    order to perfect the output of the school and thus to help
    increase the total number of American aces at the Front
    In order to prevent our self-sacrificing instructors from
    getting stale, a few were allowed to take turns in going to
    the Front for a month at a time. This gave them new ideas
    and new experiences. When they came back to the school
    they had the advantage in every case of having success-
    fully brought down one or more Huns. This increased their
    prestige with their students and let them feel that they had
    had their chance at a little real action. Occasionally, pilots
    who had been at the Front for six months or more and who
    were tired out were sent back to the school as teachers. Those
    who have been in the teaching profession know that a teacher
    who is tired is seldom very effective. These pilots were no
    exception to the general rule. Two or three of them were
    unusually good, but our experience with the majority led
    us to believe that the best instructors were not those who
    had become unfitted for duty at the Front, but those who had
    learned the importance of teaching and were glad to take
    advantage of a few weeks at the Front to increase their effi-
    ciency in the game for which they were preparing others."


    Flying demands

    "It was on Field 8 that a pilot had an opportunity to use
    every bit of the flying ability which he had acquired in all
    his previous experience. Some of the American trained pi-
    lots, who had flown too long on the old type of preliminary
    training planes, found it difficult to accustom themselves to
    the rapidity of manoeuvre demanded by the instructors at
    this field. While it was necessary that the pilot should have a
    good foundation in ordinary flying before coming here and
    should be able to do aerial acrobacy with skill and confidence,
    it was also essential that he should not have acquired any bad
    habits. The good combat pilot must be able to fly in any di-
    rection and in any attitude with supreme confidence in his
    machine and in his ability to put it in any desired position.
    He must be extremely alert. He must have formed the habit
    of seeing every visible plane in the sky and of knowing by
    instinct its approximate location at any given moment. It
    was said that the remarkably long life of Fonck at the Front
    was due to his constant inspection of every sector of the air.
    Probably seventy-five per cent of the pilots shot down at the
    Front were the victims of surprise attacks, and had no idea
    that there was an enemy in the immediate vicinity until he
    was so close that it was impossible to escape."


    Aggressive nature

    "It was here on Field 8 that the aggressive spirit of a
    good polo player or of a first-class football player placed
    him in the front ranks of the combat pilots. The sluggish
    flyer is likely to leave himself open to attack by an aggres-
    sive pilot. The active, energetic, aggressive fighter is not only
    more likely to gain the advantage of offensive tactics, but
    will also be more likely to spot his enemy first and gain the
    benefit of position. The American boy is particularly good in
    games requiring quick judgment and correct action. This
    trait made him excellent in meeting the rapidly changing
    conditions of aerial combat There were no hard and fast rules
    that could be laid down as to how to win out in a "dog fight,"
    as the rough and tumble aerial combats were called. "If a
    Hun gets on your tail and you see the tracers coming close,
    you will most likely do some acrobatics that you never have done before."
    "In this work a steady hand, a cool head, and
    an all-seeing eye are the essential features of safety. Add
    to them ability to fly and skill in using the machine gun,
    and your results spell success." So we were told by pilots
    from the Front."


    Aerial gunnery

    All the planes used on Field 8 were equipped with cam-
    era guns built like a machine gun, but shooting pictures
    instead of bullets. The pictures register the position of the
    enemy at the moment that the trigger is pulled. In this way
    it is possible for the instructor and the student to see what
    would have happened in actual combat. Examination of
    these pictures illustrates the tendency of one pilot to shoot
    when still at too great a distance for effective work, of an-
    other pilot to overshoot the mark, and of a third to fail to
    make sufficient allowance for the speed of the opposing
    machine."


    Major Wingate's contributions

    "At the time the Armistice was signed, Captain (later
    Major) Harry L. Wingate, who was in charge of the field,
    was extraordinarily successful in overcoming the difficulties
    of keeping in commission a large number of the mono-
    planes and other types of small scout machines which were
    in use at this field, and which received very severe handling
    in the course of aerial combat work. Constant inspection of
    machines after they had come in from flight, a high morale
    among the enlisted mechanics, and a splendid determina-
    tion to overcome every obstacle at no matter what cost, en-
    abled Captain Wingate to graduate from fifteen to twenty
    men every flying day at his field. Considering the type of
    planes that he had to work with and the severity of their
    use, this was a remarkable achievement"
    [B][COLOR=Black][SIZE=3][FONT=Book Antiqua][I] Steve[/I][/FONT][/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]

    [CENTER][I][FONT=Georgia][COLOR=orange]Did you ever get the feeling that the world was a tuxedo and you were a pair of brown shoes?[/COLOR][/FONT]
    [/I][/CENTER]
    [B]
    [SIZE=3][COLOR=lemonchiffon][I][CENTER][FONT=Georgia]"Fly on dear boy, from this dark world of strife. On to the promised land to eternal life"[/FONT][/CENTER]
    [/I][/COLOR][/SIZE][/B]

  6. #36

    Default Re: Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

    The monument at the Issoudun Training Field site...
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture Click image for larger version. 

Name:	3rd AIC.jpg 
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    [B][COLOR=Black][SIZE=3][FONT=Book Antiqua][I] Steve[/I][/FONT][/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]

    [CENTER][I][FONT=Georgia][COLOR=orange]Did you ever get the feeling that the world was a tuxedo and you were a pair of brown shoes?[/COLOR][/FONT]
    [/I][/CENTER]
    [B]
    [SIZE=3][COLOR=lemonchiffon][I][CENTER][FONT=Georgia]"Fly on dear boy, from this dark world of strife. On to the promised land to eternal life"[/FONT][/CENTER]
    [/I][/COLOR][/SIZE][/B]

  7. #37

    Default Re: Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

    The below is a listing of the individuals who were killed in training while at the 3rd. AIC.



    BILLARD, Philip Louis Lt. AAS b.27 Apr 1891, Topeka, KS Son of Mayor Julius B. and Hermance P. (LAURENT) BILLARD, Topeka, KS DIA 25 July 1918 in air accident at the Issoudun advanced flying school airfield in France. With the 3rd Aviation Inst Center. Remains cremated and scattered at Issoudun Flying School, France


    3rd Aviation Instruction Center Monument
    A stone obelisk commemorating those Americans of the Third Instruction Center who were killed while training with the 3rd Aviation Instruction Center during WWI. The text on this monument, plus the 4 bronze plaques, are as follows : 1917 – 1918 – 1919 ; Third Aviation Instruction Center. Below this text, a French Blue, White, and Red "Cockard" carrying the words "Souvenir Francais" has been fixed to the monument.



    The front bronze plaque carries the following names:

    Pvt. Ernest L. Simpson, PVT. George Astialine, 1st Lt Joseph H. Mason A. S., 1st Lt. Phil Billard A. S., Sgt. Robert W. Holt Jr., 2nd Lt. Cecil S. Huntington A. S., Pvt. Walter D. Sobiske, Pvt. Joshua D. Slonaker, 1st. Lt Mark F. Hamilton A. S., Pvt. 1st. Cl. Thomas A. Addis, 2nd Lt. Wedwin B. Schreiber A. S., 1st Lt. Lenwood N. Ott A. S., 2nd. Lt. William C Carmack, A. S., 2nd Lt. Donald M. Sage A. S., 2nd Lt. Samuel A. Greenwood A. S., 1st Lt. Robert M. Wood Jr., A. S., 1st. Lt Leroy G. Woodward A. S., 1st Lt. Edward J. Smyth A. S., 1st. Lt. Clinton I. Sutton A. S., 2nd. Lt. Lewis M. Smith A. S., 1st Lt. John Hubbard A. S., 2nd. Lt. Arthur J. Stahler A. S., 1st Lt. Stephen T. Webster A. S., 2nd Lt. Greayer Clover A.S., Cpt Roger W. Jannus A.S., Pvt. Ruby Barnes, 2nd Lt. Hugo L. Stock A. S., Pvt Lonnie C. Hall, Pvt. Virgil Kiper, Pvt. Carmic Price, Pvt. William E. Krausz, Pvt Earl Mills, Pvt. Grover Dummitt, 2nd Lt. Horace B. Forman A.S., Pvt. Arthur L. Zollman, 2nd Lt. Cecil M. Anderson A. S., Sgt. Gustave L. Soniat, 1st. Lt. William F. Nerrick A. S., 1st. Lt. Sylvester B. Moore A.S., 1st Lt. Kimsy L. Stewart A. S., Pvt. Clark W. Flack, CPL. Harold F. Owens, Pvt. Robert N. Feldner.


    List of names carried on R.N. Bronze plaque :
    Pvt. Edward S. Stilley, Pvt. Louis Lafasse, Pvt. Jesse B. Jones, 2nd. Lt. George S. Reisz A. S., Pvt. Robert C. Castteel, Sgt Wilbur E. Moore, Pvt. Daniel W. Fox, Pvt. Bernard F. Romacosa, Cpl. Lester F. Robie, Cpl. John W. Wainwright A. S., Cpl Raymond W. Thornton, Pvt. Ernest Gautier, 2nd Lt. Walter W. Goddard Jr. A. S., 2nd. Lt James R. Crowe A.S., 2nd. Lt Lawrence E. Vilas A. S., Sgt. Otto T. Dreher, Sgt. 1st. Cl. Harry D. Magness, Pvt. Mitchell L. McClurg, 2nd. Lt. Paul S. Whitehead A.S., 2nd. Lt Benjamin Wohl A. S., Sgt Fred M. Woods, Sgt Edward M. Moriarty, 2nd. Lt. Albert F. Gilmore A. S., 2nd. Lt. Walter L. Harrison A. S., Cpl. Leon Brannon, 2nd. Lt. Edward R. Richte A. S., Sgt. Ingle S. Smith, Pvt. Edward J. Daly, Cpl. Paul K. Willson, Sgt. Verne I. Mounts, Pvt. 1st. Cl. Danforth E. Buck, Cdt. Paul W. Lindsley A. S., Sec Joseph Franklin Hardy, Y.M.C.A., Pvt. Clarence R. Shaw, Pvt. James Stinziano, Cpl. William J. Clarke, Pvt. Charles J. Corsiglia, Pvt. Joseph T. Gee, Pvt. 1st. Cl. Lawrence B. Barnes, Sgt. 1st. Cl. Walter H. Wills, 1st Lt Vincent J. Dushek A. S., 2nd. Lt. Charles F. Backus A. S., 1st Lt. Arthur M. Roberts A. S., Pvt. Carl F. Anderson, Capt Edward C. Gwynne A. S.


    Text on rear of monument:
    En mémoire de ceux qui ont donné leur vie pour la liberté – 1917 -1919 – 3e Ecole d'Aviation – Forces Expeditionnaires Américaines. List of names carried on rear bronze plaque : Sgt. 1st Cl. Ralph L. Cock, 1st Lt. W. C. Woodward A. S., 1st Lt. James F. Greer A.S., 1st Lt. John R. Schley A.S., CPL. Joseph H. Liskie, 1st Lt. A. F. Bell, A.S., 1st Lt. Wm. B. Coleman A.S., 2nd Lt. F.J. McMahon A.S., 2nd Lt. Wm. V. Capen A. S., 2nd Lt. Clinton R. Madison A. S., 2nd Lt. Fred C. Austrom A.S. , 2nd Lt. "Carl A. Grimes A.S., 1st Lt. Cryus E. Graham A. S., 2nd Lt. Clair W. Welty A.S., 2nd Lt Preston E. Tupper A.S., 2nd Lt. Reginald J. Calkens A. S., Pvt. Vincent V Manzo, Sgt. Clyde C. Webb, 2nd Lt Altin H. Kimball A. S., 2nd Lt. William M. Falk A. S., 2nd Lt. Roger C. Coree A. S., 2nd Lt. Thomas L. Spence A. S., Pvt. John W. Hofelt, 2nd Lt. Henry C. Smith A. S., 2nd Lt. Elwood H. Hooper A. S., Pvt. Steven McReely, 1st Lt. Colber C. Clive A. S., Wagoner Charlie Riley, Pvt. Carroll P. Whittington, Pvt Willard Pipe, CPL. Ernest E. Comstock, Sgt Thurman M. Gregory, Cpl. Clarence S. Humphries.


    List of names carried on L. M. Bronze plaque:
    Pvt. Raymond H Runner, Pvt Erwin H. Shaw, 1st Lt. James D. Paull A. S., Pvt. Ernest E. Marsh, Pvt. Garland E. McCoy, Sgt. 1st Cl. Welby N. Crang, M. S. E. Franklin E. Perry, CPL Frank M. May, Pvt. Walter L. Fitzgerald, Pvt. Elllis E. Hunt, Sgt. Alvin Roberts, Cdt. Ernest H. Leach, 1st Lt. Jack M. Wright A. S., 1st Lt. Frank B. Turner A. S., Cdt. Charles A. Hopkins, Cdt Arthur H. Wilson, Cdt. George Cl. Phillipoteaux, 1st Lt. Arthur J. Perrault A. S., Cdt Edward E. Butler, 2nd Lt. Charles B. Seward A. S., 1st Lt. James C. Marquardy A. S., 1st Lt Clayton C. Ingersoll, A.S. , Cdt. Kenneth M. Copley, 1st Lt. John K. Grisard A. S., Cdt. Steward Freeman, 1st Lt. Harry C. Colborn A. S., Cdt. Joseph Bettenhausen, Sgt. Thurston R. Chamberlain, 1st Lt. Eugene P. Wubben A. S., 1st Lt. William N. Newitt A. S., Cdt. Rexford Shilliday, 1st Lt Richard Anderson A. S., 2nd Lt. Lester L. Meyer A. S., 1st Lt. Earl H. Neville A. S., Sgt. 1st Cl. James F. O'Flaherty, 2nd Lt. William F. Chamberlain A. S., Army Nurse Marion L. Watkins A. S., Pvt. Wilfred J. Breckenridge, 1st Lt Remson Bishop A. S., Cook Merritt Winsell, 1st Lt. Loyd B. Vorhies A. S., 1st Lt. Richard E. Lloyd A. S.



    That is a lot of casualties, and attests to the extreme risks involved with flying these early crates even without factoring in the threat of contact with the enemy...
    [B][COLOR=Black][SIZE=3][FONT=Book Antiqua][I] Steve[/I][/FONT][/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]

    [CENTER][I][FONT=Georgia][COLOR=orange]Did you ever get the feeling that the world was a tuxedo and you were a pair of brown shoes?[/COLOR][/FONT]
    [/I][/CENTER]
    [B]
    [SIZE=3][COLOR=lemonchiffon][I][CENTER][FONT=Georgia]"Fly on dear boy, from this dark world of strife. On to the promised land to eternal life"[/FONT][/CENTER]
    [/I][/COLOR][/SIZE][/B]

  8. #38

    Default Re: Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

    Here is the Major in his last years of life. I can't help but feeling a great sense of pride and admiration for this man, and his historic contributions during the Great War and the early days of aviation.

    God Bless you Sir...soldier, statesman, hero.

    I hope you all enjoyed seeing this grouping.
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture Click image for larger version. 

Name:	harry in later years.jpg 
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    [B][COLOR=Black][SIZE=3][FONT=Book Antiqua][I] Steve[/I][/FONT][/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]

    [CENTER][I][FONT=Georgia][COLOR=orange]Did you ever get the feeling that the world was a tuxedo and you were a pair of brown shoes?[/COLOR][/FONT]
    [/I][/CENTER]
    [B]
    [SIZE=3][COLOR=lemonchiffon][I][CENTER][FONT=Georgia]"Fly on dear boy, from this dark world of strife. On to the promised land to eternal life"[/FONT][/CENTER]
    [/I][/COLOR][/SIZE][/B]

  9. #39

    Default Re: Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

    awesome grouping.........very touching......thank you for preserving and sharing!

    Lou

  10. #40

    Default Re: Major Harry L. Wingate, Pilot, Instructor - WW1, 3rd. Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun, France

    Quote by peribeca View Post
    awesome grouping.........very touching......thank you for preserving and sharing!

    Lou
    Lou,

    Thanks for your very kind words. The WWII aviators get a lot of attention - and rightly so, but the WWI guys are the ones that started it all. Flying and surviving these death traps in the early days was quite a feat in itself....add the danger of an enemy trying to kill you and living to tell about it, and that feat becomes the stuff of legend.
    [B][COLOR=Black][SIZE=3][FONT=Book Antiqua][I] Steve[/I][/FONT][/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]

    [CENTER][I][FONT=Georgia][COLOR=orange]Did you ever get the feeling that the world was a tuxedo and you were a pair of brown shoes?[/COLOR][/FONT]
    [/I][/CENTER]
    [B]
    [SIZE=3][COLOR=lemonchiffon][I][CENTER][FONT=Georgia]"Fly on dear boy, from this dark world of strife. On to the promised land to eternal life"[/FONT][/CENTER]
    [/I][/COLOR][/SIZE][/B]

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