Above: MARTELLO TOWERS: England
Originally 103 towers were built between 1805 and 1812 to resist a potential invasion by Napoleon.
29 were built between Aldeburgh and St Osyth Stone between 1808 and 1812 to protect Essex and Suffolk, the rest having been built a few years earlier across the Kent and Sussex coasts. They were built of brick, 13 foot thick on the seaward side, stood about 30 foot high and were equipped with a cannon on the roof. A supporting fort, or Redoubt, was built at Harwich.The largest tower is Martello CC, at Aldeburgh, which is effectively four towers joined together.
Below: Knights of Malta, Gneja Bay, Malta.
The defensive tower at Gneja Bay, Malta. The Maltese islands are ringed by these lookout towers.