Cargo Submarine U-Deutschland Artifacts and Model
Article about: Steve: Thanks for the follow-up on Mont Alto. It looks like Prusse was probably the engineer superintendent of construction on both the Deutschland and the Bremen. His official designation i
05-30-2014, 03:19 PM
There is, of late, a small group of American adventurers who are preparing to observe the 2016 centennial Atlantic crossing of the World's first commercial submarine U-DEUTSCHLAND. This sub-sea freighter came to the foot of Collin McLean's Andre street pier, along Baltimore, Maryland, USA's South Locust Point peninsular, on July 10th 1916.
Should you wish, in any way, to become involved with this project, please get off a private E-wire to HawseLine at Gmail dot Com for more details.
Baltimore's queen mother of the port, the Honorable Helen Delich Bentley, is an enthused member of the committee. As a reporter of the mid-20th century, Helen interviewed Owen Coleman, the Chesapeake Bay pilot, who guided the DEUTSCHLAND in and out of port during her maritime-first voyage.
In addition to being strictly a cargo freighter, the submersible was also the first-ever of its kind to make a solo crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, dropping anchor at the old Quarantine station just off of Leading Point (west end of present-day Francis Scott Key bridge west side). Here's an account of her initial homeward journey and the life-or-death hurdle she faced on her Port of Baltimore to Bremen journey nearly one-hundred years ago. Enjoy!
LIPTON TRYING TO LIFT CUP NOT IN IT WITH DEUTSCHLAND RACE
"Sir Charles Lipton, with all his Shamrocks endeavoring to lift the American cup, never created a breathless interest in this country of the DEUTSCHLAND racing the blockade of Hampton Roads [Virginia] for the safety that lies in the great wide sea. The American may have his bias in the war, but when it comes to the DEUTSCHLAND in her race for life, he is no longer neutral. Your typical American is what the language of the street calls "a dead game sport." The DEUTSCHLAND is no longer an issue of war or even a blockade runner in the technical acceptance of the term, the DEUTSCHLAND became a sporting proposition, a bet and a hope.
The DEUTSCHLAND couldn't possibly harm one of the eight warships in waiting outside the three-mile limit [she carried no deck guns nor torpedoes]. The underdog without a kick is the literal likeness, Seamanship of a sort new enough to be unique: adroit judgement, which takes advantage of every opportunity, and an ability to dive to a narrow channel at the right moment, are pitted against the great guns of the dogs of war. No wonder the American sympathy is with the under dog.
More than this, your typical American believes thoroughly in blood-less war of trade. The DEUTSCHLAND typifies trade under difficulties, with the element and spice of danger. In a way[,] your sea captain Koenig, becomes a captain of industry. Will he make good on the race of trade to beat war? Americans may not bet on the issue, but the great majority of them will be found not to be neutral." Syracuse NY Daily Journal, August 2, 1916, pg. 8
As an aside, this September, the United States seaport of Baltimore will be celebrating the climatic land and sea battle for a group of bottled-up merchantmen, during 1812, which inspired a Washington DC lawyer named Francis Scott Key to pen the lines to what would later become America's national anthem "The Star Spangled Banner".
06-12-2014, 10:14 PM
I know this is totally off topic, but I am reaching out to everyone that may help me.
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Thanking everyone in advance.
06-24-2014, 11:28 PM
DEUTSCHLAND UNTER ALLES Brings On BLACK LIST
You all may be interested in this story. I was...
"There are great rejoicings in Germany over the fact that the submarine merchantman, or whatever the correct description of her may be, the Deutschland, has completed the return voyage from Bremen to Baltimore. Captain Paul Koenig, who has commanded steamers in the German merchant service for twenty years without ever having discovered that this fact gave him any claim to be considered a more than usually interesting personality, has now, we learn, been hailed in Germany as a national hero.
Whether a wooden effigy of him is to be 'constructed, into which a grateful public, paying so many pfennigs for the privilege, will drive nails, in order that some war fund may benefit, we have yet to learn. Perhaps not. That would be to place him on a level with Marshal von Hindenburg, whom the Germans, several months ago, apparently in some unaccountable manner forgetting temporarily the existence of the Kaiser himself, were declaring to be the saviour of their country.
But for the time being he has been elevated to an eminence, hardly less exalted than that occupied by the soldier-hero, that will command the admiration which the German people, in an ecstasy of joy, are prepared to lavish upon him. Moreover, he has been summoned to the headquarters of the Kaiser, there to,-receive the personal congratulations of the All Highest himself upon the achievement of the signal feat of having twice crossed the Atlantic in safety.
Sailors are usually amongst the most modest of men, and would generally experience a certain amount of embarrassment in being made the recipient of the popular attentions that are being bestowed on the captain of the Deutschlannd. But Captain Koenig is probably capable of playing up to the part which by public acclamation has been assigned to him. Some of the statements that were made by him for publication in America have about them the ring with which the speeches of many of his countrymen have made us familiar.
Describing the house flag of the Deutsche Ozean Rhederei, the company to the order of which the Deutschland is said to have been built—a red-and-white striped flag with a key in one corner —Captain Koenig is reported to have said:. "This key is the sign that we have opened the gates which Great Britain tried to shut up on us and the trade of the world.
The gates which we opened with this key will not be shut again. Open door to the trade of the world and freedom of the oceans and equal rights to all nations on the oceans will be guaranteed by Germany's victory in this struggle for our existence." The assertion that the successful termination of a voyage by a solitary vessel, which has sneaked under water through the danger zones, represents the re-opening of the gates for the overseas trade of Germany may be as soothing to the feelings of the people of that country as the Kaiser's boast that the German Fleet had achieved " a brilliant victory" in the Horn Reef battle was intended to be. It made no very deep impression in America, however, and no person who is not a German, and who is not, therefore, devoid of a sense of humor, believes, with one of the German papers in New York, that, with the exploit of the Deutschland, "the Germans have quietly written a new page in world history," or that ''it is beyond doubt that, since the day when Columbus sailed on his westward journey, 110 keener and stronger undertaking in navigation is known than this German achievement of the Deutschland."
And when another German paper in America declares, on the strength of the same incident, that, "if England rules all over the waves, Germany unquestionably rules all under the waves," and rhapsodies about "the matchless achievements of German courage and German efficiency," it is merely necessary to remark that it was never supposed that the Deutschland, provided she was favored with reasonable luck, could not negotiate the trans-Atlantic voyage, tho simple fact being that ten British submarines, constructed in Canada, crossed the Atlantic last year.
It might ho an exaggeration to ray that, at his best, Sir Maurice O'Rorke, whose death is announced this morning, was the most efficient Speaker whom tho Parliament of New Zealand has known, for there were giants in the Parliament of the country in tho earlier days of constitutional government and it is impossible to institute reliable comparisons between men of recent and men of more distant times. Moreover, with the march of time came a change in the composition arid in the character of Parliament. It would be idle to contend that the members of Parliament of tho present day in New Zealand are, regarded as a whole, the equals in various respects of the members of fifty or forty years ago.
It may safely be claimed that the Parliament of the dominion still compares—as it always has compared— more than favorably with the Parliament of any other self-governing country under the Southern Cross, yet there has unquestionably been a deterioration in its character, and it is more than likely that the Speakers in the earlier period of the parliamentary history of New Zealand' had less difficult positions to fill than that which Sir Maurice O'Rorke, with great credit to himself, occupied continuously from 1879 to 1890.
The firmness and dignity with which [Sir O'Rorke] ruled the House during that period have not been approached by any of his successors in tho chair, — not even by himself when, after a temporary absence from Parliament, he was re-elected Speaker in 1894 and retained his office until he was defeated at the general election in 1902. For, although even then the authority of the chair may have been asserted in a degree that was missing during the period of his absence from the House, Sir Maurice O'Rorke perceptibly did not possess that control over the Chamber which imparted a distinction to his occupancy of the Speakership during his previous long term of office.
Prior to his appointment to the position of Speaker at all Sir Maurice O'Rorke has figured as the principal character in a dramatic scene. He was for a short time a member of the Vogel Ministry in 1872-3, but when the Premier announced his policy of the abolition of the provinces Sir Maurice would—as Gisborne puts it in his " New Zealand Rulers and Statesmen take no part in treacherously, as he thought, destroying those institutions which he loved so well" and he withdrew from the Government, announcing his resignation for the first time in a speech from tho Ministerial benches, and thereafter walking across the floor of the House. Latterly, though a member of the Legislative Council, he took no active part in politics, nor did he seem to be greatly interested in them. But his name should long be held in remembrance as that of a singularly able Speaker in a period covered by at least four Parliaments.
The latest American files furnish evidence of the existence of a considerable ferment in a section, at all events, of the mercantile community in the United States over the action of the British Government in publishing, rather more than a month ago, the names of eighty-two American firms and individuals that had been placed on a " black list " under the Enemy Trading Act. The matter was taken up, it will be remembered, by the State Department at Washington, and was the subject of a recent American Note of protest to the British Government.
Other neutral countries, notably Sweden, have been perturbed over the " black list," and a few days ago it was reported that a protest by the Argentine Government against the " black-listing " of firms supposed to have trade dealings with the enemy had elicited from Viscount Grey the reply that he did not believe that the prosperity of the Argentine was dependent on such firms and that where they operated against Britain she must take precautions.
The Note of the United States has protested against arbitrary interference with neutral trade and the " harsh and disastrous effects" of the "Black list" policy. It takes a very one sided view of the. situation. It dwells on violation of international law and injury to American trade, but gives scant attention to the direct and legitimate purpose of the action of Great Britain.
The important aspect of the " black list " is its purpose of restricting, not American trade, but British trade with firms that are open to suspicion as having dealings with enemy countries. The British "black list" can fairly be regarded more as a white than as a black list so far as the Enemy Trading Act has any bearing on the general trade of the United States.
Only eighty-two American firms have been placed on the list of those with whom British subjects are forbidden to deal, and it can be argued that the singling out of these firms has been equivalent to giving permission to British subjects to deal with every other American individual or firm. In other words, the publication of such a list renders it possible for British subjects to know the firms with which they can safely deal without risking the displeasure of their Government and of prosecution under the Enemy Trading Act.
Apparently a good deal of the concern felt by American firms over the "black list " is explained in the circumstance that neutral firms in other countries have felt the impulse to refrain from trading with firms that have been " black-listed," for fear that in so doing they would get into the list themselves and thereby lose their own trade with British subjects who are forbidden under heavy penalty to deal with " black-listed" firms.
But the amount of virtuous indignation expressed by American firms recently placed on the "black list," many of them bearing unmistakably Teutonic names, is rather amusing. The one thing that these most impeccable of neutral traders all seem to overlook is the right, of Britain to take precautions in the interests of her own trade. If she did not do this British goods might be finding their way through neutral channels into Germany, and German goods entering the precincts of execrated Albion.
The "black-listed " American firms were not long, the newspapers disclose, in forming an organization of protest under the modest title of "The Association to Resist British Domination of American Commerce." At a much advertised meeting their representatives expressed their pained surprise at the treatment accorded them.
Mr Leopold Zimmerman, of the " black-listed " Wall street banking house bearing his name, was chosen chairman of the organization, and we are tempted to quote an extract from a speech ho delivered as redolent of outraged dignity as it affected to be superior to all petty commercial considerations. " This shocking attempt of a foreign nation," said Mr Zimmermann, " to discipline tho citizen?" of a neutral country for conduct distinctly within their rights is obviously the most menacing development of the great European conflict.
The danger which the situation bears for our commonwealth is of course the primary consideration of American citizens. However humiliating to the 'black-listed ' citizens England's action may have been, the injury to them is insignificant when compared to the effect intended by England upon the commerce of the United States and the standing of the United States and its citizens in the commercial world.
Thus the affair is no longer one of a persecuted handful of citizens, but one which involves the integrity and dignity of the American nation. "It is of course all very clear. The American firms finding themselves on the British trade "black list " survey this question from the highest ' moral plane. Their pockets do not matter, but the rights of American citizens—that is another story and the subject of their whole concern...
Source: THE OTAGO [New Zealand] DAILY TIMES SATURDAY, AUGUST 26, 1916. "DEUTSCHLAND UNTER ALLES."
06-27-2014, 11:27 PM
DEUTSCHLAND'S Alfred Lomann Descendants Sought
A re-posting from an American genealogical site
Does anyone know anything about Alfred Lohmann, born in Germany, the one who conceived the idea for building the German submarine DEUTSCHLAND? He was President of the Bremen Chamber of Commerce and became the President of the Board of Directors of the Company called "Deutsche Ozean Rhederei" [translated: German Ocean Shipping Company] and this was the first of several submarines the company built.
We believe Alfred had a brother John William Lohmann who and was married to Henrietta Horscheit in Germany then immigrated to US c. 1874 . They had a total of 7 children, all born in Germany except the youngest, Ernest G. Lohmann, who was born in New York City on Dec 7, 1877. Some of this family later immigrated to Illinois.
We are unsure of the birthplace of these Lohmann brothers, so any help pointing us in the right direction would be greatly appreciated."
Please send any info to:
hawseline at gmail dot com and loondale.benjamin at verizon dot net
07-03-2014, 09:02 AM
07-03-2014, 09:11 AM
A little overpriced but just in case any of you are interested this one is currently up for sale on ebay.
German WW1 Rectangular Copper Cigarette Ashtray | eBay
07-15-2014, 04:01 AM
I am new to this forum but not new to the subject of the Great War and the Kaiser's submarine service. I have three questions/requests to put out there. I realize this is off the specific topic of the U155 but reading this thread has made me realize the wealth of knowledge possessed by the regular posters here. I posted this same message on the WWI forum on uboat.net, and haven't gotten much of a response yet, although I am still hopeful on that point.
*Does anyone have a picture of a U-Cruiser's cable cutter? I have seen multiple references and even a few descriptions in primary and secondary sources to cable cutters and their role in the U-Cruiser campaigns off West Africa and the North American coast but have never actually seen one.
*Does anyone have any good sources or actual photos of the U151 type of U-Cruisers? I have seen a few photos of them when they were impounded by the Allies but not many of them in action or in training while still in German service. Any pictures in particular of the lost U-Cruisers U156 and U154?
*I do not speak German, regrettably, but wanted to know if the book Die Deutschen U-Kreuzer und Transport-U-Boote is still worth it to buy for the list of sources used, and any photos contained in the book too? Are there a lot of quality illustrations for anyone who has this book?
Thank you for any and all help you can give and greetings from the United States!
08-13-2014, 08:59 PM
This thread is rather long in the tooth and obviously running out of steam. So, before it sinks completely out of sight, or should I say before it hits bottom, I want to update and correct some earlier information that I posted. I was very fortunate to have been contacted by Alfred Lohmann's grand nephew who generously shared with me information and documents pertaining to the Deutsche Ozean Reederei, Alfred Lohmann, and other aspects of Germany's cargo submarine project, including a detailed list of the medals handed out in August 1916 following the U-Deutschland's return to Germany. For reference to those earlier posts see, p.5 #49; p. 5; #500 p. 50; #645 p.65; #740 p. 74; & #886 p. 89.
The medals are ranked downward in order of the rank or standing of the individuals to whom they were awarded, with the exceptions of the Allgemeines Ehrenzeichen in Bronze and the Preußischer Roter Adlerorden Medaille, the awards of which should have been reversed. For some unexplained reason, the people who made up the list ranked the ten most junior crewmen, who were seamen and stokers, above the eight more senior crewmen who were machine operators, a radioman, and a boatswain. The juniors got a much higher award than did their seniors.
Ritterkreuz des Hausordens von Hohenzollern
Knight's Cross of the Hohenzollern House Order
Kapitän Paul König
Preußischer Königlicher Kronenorden 2. Klasse
Prussian Royal Order of the Crown 2nd Class
DOR Präsident Alfred Lohmann
Preußischer Roter Adlerorden 4. Klasse mit der Krone
Prussian Order of the Red Eagle 4th Class with Crown
Krupp Schiffsbaudirektor Ernst Zetzmann
Preußischer Roter Adlerorden 4. Klasse
Prussian Order of the Red Eagle 4th Class
Krupp Oberingenieur (Sr. Engineer) Hans Techel
EFCO Henry Hilken
EFCO Paul G. L. Hilken
NDL Capt. Friedrich Hinsch
Preußischer Königlicher Kronenorden 4. Klasse
Prussian Royal Order of the Crown 4th Class
Prokurist (Authorized Officer) Hoppe
Prokurist (Authorized Officer)Hohrmann
Krupp Schiffsbauingenieur (Ship Construction Engineer) Gotthold Prusse
1. Offizier Franz Krapohl
2. Offizier Emil Eyring
Oberingenieur (Chief Engineer) H. Klees
Preußisches Verdienstkreuz in Silber
Prussian Service Cross in Silver
Verwalter (Purser) W. Kessel,
Maschinist (Machinist) Karl Früchte,
Maschinist (Machinist) Johan Kissling
Maschinist (Machinist) Otto Wegener
Allgemeines Ehrenzeichen in Bronze
General Honor Award in Bronze
Maschinenwärter (Machine Operator) George Nagel
Maschinenwärter (Machine Operator) Hans Mühle
Maschinenwärter (Machine Operator) Albert Albers
Maschinenwärter (Machine Operator) Erhard Hultsch
Maschinenwärter (Machine Operator) H. Höfelmann
Maschinenwärter (Machine Operator) Robert Zimmer
Funkentelegraphist (Radioman) Arthur Geilenfeld
Bootsmann (Boatswain) Fritz Humke
Preußischer Roter Adlerorden Medaille
Prussian Order of the Red Eagle Medallion
Matrose (Seaman) E. Nacken
Matrose (Seaman) Karl Pickert
Matrose (Seaman) Anton Born
Matrose (Seaman) Wilhelm Müller
Heizer (Stoker) E. Schneider
Heizer (Stoker) Wilhelm Obreiter
Heizer (Stoker) Karl Steen
Heizer (Stoker) Bruno Tscherner
Heizer (Stoker) Ludwig Schwarzschild
Heizer (Stoker) Edward Mitterer
Preußischer Königlicher Kronenorden-Medaille
Prussian Royal Order of the Crown Medallion
Koch (Cook) T. Simon
Aufwärter (Steward) Adolf Stucke
Last edited by drmessimer; 08-13-2014 at 10:36 PM.
08-13-2014, 09:18 PM
The updates made in earlier posts regarding this artifact were made using the best information available at the time. But I recently came across a file in the records of the Bureau of Investigation, 1908-1922 and the records of the Mixed Claims Commission that produced these corrections and one completely new piece of information. The information provided below is the completed information file on this artifact.
Update and correction for the Deutschland Cross, also called the König Cross;
See posts, 334, p.34; 342 & 349 p. 35; 539 p.54; 775 p. 78; 837 p. 84; & 864 p. 87
While the U-Deutschland was in Baltimore, Captain Paul König donated 2,000 tons of the boat’s cast iron ballast to the Baltimore Chapter of the Verein für das Deutschtum im Ausland (VDA). The VDA was part of a worldwide organization that was headquartered in Berlin and exists in Germany today as the Verein für Kulturbeziehung im Ausland with headquarters in Sankt Augustin.
The Baltimore sculptor, Hans Schuler, designed the cross, and the Baltimore firm, G. Krug and Son cast the crosses, and inlaid separately struck, brass-plated, white-metal shells into cast depressions on both sides of the Crosses. The inlaid medallions are not solid and are not made of metal taken from the U-Deutschland nor from its ballast. The Baltimore VDA retained possession of the entire stock of crosses in Baltimore and functioned as the sales agent and distribution authority in the name of the Committee for the Relief of Prisoners of War in Siberia. It was a straight forward and legitimate fund raising arrangement.
After the United States declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917, the Baltimore VDA, fearing wartime reprisals and confiscation of it’s assets, hid the remaining crosses for the duration. In 1932, Paul König returned to Baltimore and took possession of the entire lot of crosses and took them back to Germany where he turned them over to the VDA chapter in Bremen, which used the crosses as member awards until sometime in WWII.
Another interesting feature is that the maker of the crosses, G. Krug and Son is the oldest Iron works factory in the United States and has been doing business in the same location since 1810.
There is also a rather dark and very little known fact about this cross. Not all of them were sold for charity. Paul Hilken acquired an unknown number of crosses and from November 1916 through March 1917, he placed this advertisement, together with a photo of the cross, in the pro-German magazine, Issues and Events. "The above souvenirs are being sold for the benefit of the War Sufferers by the German Austro Hungarian Red Cross Aid Society of Baltimore, care of Messrs A Schumacher & Co 2 East German Street for the Price of $1.10 postpaid Size 3 inches."
Entirely unknown to anyone connected with the Germans' cargo submarine project, Paul Hilken was, in addition to being the Deutsche Ozean Reederei agent in Baltimore and the vice president of the Eastern Forwarding Company, a German espionage agent who ran Germany's most successful sabotage cell in the U.S. during WWI. The charity named in the advertisement was actually a front, and the money collected through sales was used to fund the Baltimore sabotage cell's activities. Below is a photo provided by Claas Stöckmeyer showing Paul König at his home in 1932 examining some of the crosses he had brought back
Petra Messbacher, Geschäftsfüherin VDA e.V., Sankt Augustin email, 25 September 2013
Patrick Cutter, Museum Director, G. Krug and Son, Baltimore, email 24 September 2013
Records of the Department of State, RG59, M367, 763.7114/2670, List of Alien Charitable Organizations, 22 April 1917
Urkunde, VDA an Friedrich Tanger, März 1937, Claas Stöckmeyer, Bremen
David Schenkman, numismatist, "A Relic Medal of the German Submarine Deutschland," E-Sylum, vol. 15, No. 26, 24 June 2012, Art. No. 14.
Vernon Taylor, Catalog of Hans Schuler’s work.
Last edited by drmessimer; 08-13-2014 at 10:53 PM.
08-31-2014, 02:59 PM
DEUTSCHLAND Turned Over To Allies
Naval War Notes. -- Surrender of More German Submarines. -- In addition to the German submarines previously surrendered in British waters under the terms of the armistice, 20 more were surrendered on Nov 22  to Admiral Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt, of the British Navy, off Harwich, England. One submarine sank during the night, and but for this disaster the number surrendered would have been 21. A surrender of 28 more German submarines took place on Nov. 24 at Harwich in the presence of Sir Eric Geddes, First Lord of Admiralty, and 27 additional were surrendered at Harwich Nov 27. These surrenders make a total of 114 German submarines turned over to the British Navy. Those last surrendered, according to the Associated Press, included several very large submarines and four of the cruiser type, one being 350 feet in length. The submarine Deutschland U-153 [should read U-152 but not the DEUTSCHLAND] was among the number. She had aboard Lieuts. Julius H. Fulcher and Frank L Muller, U.S.N., who had been picked up by the submarine after the American cargo ship Ticonderoga was torpedoed on Sept. 30 last. The officers were taken to Kiel by the Deutschland, which was returning from a cruise in American waters, and were landed Nov. 24 at Harwich. Another submarine surrendered was the U-139, commanded by Lieut Arnauld T. La Periere, who in 1916 was awarded the Order Pour le Merite for sinking 126 vessels. -- Army and Navy Journal 30/11
Source: United States Naval Institute Proceedings PUBLISHED MONTHLY EDITED BY G.M. RAVENSCROFT Vol. 45 No 1 January, 1919, Whole No 191, Professional Notes, pgs. 97-98
Was the DEUTSCHLAND part of the group of submarines but not the one that sank the TICONDEROGA?
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