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The Evolution of Japanese Army Dog Tags (1894-1945)

Article about: The Evolution of Japanese Army Dog Tags (1894-1945) Foreword Ever since writing about army pay books, I have had the intention to cover the other item of personal identification, the dog tag

  1. #11

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    10th July 1940
    Homeland units in Japan were assigned Tsushogo consisting of compass directions like
    西部West,中部 Center and東部 East and North 北部followed by number. Thus the 1st Regiment of the Imperial Guards was now simply, “East 2nd Unit”.

    14th November 1940
    Units stationed in Manchuria were all given 満州 or 満(Manchuria) as prefix followed by numbers. This was in anticipation of hostilities with Soviet Russia
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture Click image for larger version. 

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  2. #12

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    9th October 1941
    Units stationed in China were given Tsushogo codes as a result of extended hostilities in there.

    From 1942
    The need to rapidly field new units required timely expedient procedures for issuing new Tsushogo, so simplified means of churning out new codes came into effect.

    1944
    Prolonged use of codes eventually spoiled its concealment effect, as documents fell into enemy hands, etc. So “Operation Ichigo一号作戦” initiated by the 12th army in China in April 1944, temporarily assigned new codes for the operation. Out of similar needs, the Southern Army also employed new coding as of 26th February.

    20th April 1945
    The Tsushogo code system became due for a complete overhaul and streamlining to avoid confusion, so “Wartime Tsushogo Regulations for Army Units” was released as Army Secret Ordinance 143. The main points of this change were as follows.

    1. For China and Southern Theaters of Operation, the supreme commanders of the army corps were given the authority to designate extra Heidan Mojifu to be used in the public sphere.

    2. Homeland units were all given unique serial numbers to avoid future confusion whereas some different units used to have overlapping numbers.

    3. All the Tsushogo-related rules that were developed and released in a fragmented manner were now brought together as one ordinance.

    After the war it was learned from the former enemies that Tsushogo was effective in concealing unit identity only in the first two months of a new unit. So the confusion and inconvenience it caused the Japanese Army throughout the war was hard to justify in the end.
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  3. #13

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    Blood Types and ID tags

    Unlike the common practice observed in other modern armies, blood type was never an official stamping requirement on IJA tags. Nonetheless examples do exist with A, B, AB or O stamps. This was an initiative at the divisional level and was a practice occasionally observed in late 1944. As an example, the 5th Infantry Division issued orders on 4th October 1944, to conduct blood typing of its officers and men to prepare for anticipated blood transfusions in the near future. Those who never had blood type tested and those who claimed to know their blood type yet suspect (the order reminds that testing done by homeland replacement units in the past had often proved to be incorrect). The resulting blood type information was to be recorded in the blood type list kept at the infirmary of each unit and additionally either stamped onto the ID tags or written under the shirt collar, besides informing the individual.
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  4. #14

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    Tsushogo Lists


    There are actually many lists now on the internet. Here are a few handy ones that you should be able to easily convert into English using the translator, if you don’t want to deal with Japanese.

    1. Code list for all Infantry Regiments
    ๆ—ฅๆœฌ้™ธ่ปใฎ้ƒจ้šŠไธ€่ฆง (ๆ*ฉๅ…ต่ฏ้šŠ) - wiki31ja

    2 . Here are all aviation related codes, paratroops and all
    ???

    2.Codes for units in the battle for Okinawa
    ????????????32?????


    All the following are from the Japanese National Archives, which are scans of old documents.
    All archive documents require installation of a browser plug-in called DjVu and here is where you get the English and other language version free.

    Japan Center for Asian Historical Records
    It is also possible to browse without the viewer. However, in that case, you will need to wait forever for jpeg images to load. It is virtually impossible to go through the long lists without the viewer. DjVu allows you to scroll through the pages rapidly (this goes even quicker if you save the file to your PC first.)

    Here are now the “By Number” Lists
    Most lists show only numbers without the Heidan Mojufu, so it is best to cross refer with other lists that show this kanji.


    By Number Lists


    1. 1001 to 7416…………………………………………….50 pages 1946

    ??????**???????????

    2. 7420 to 15692………………………………………….50 pages

    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...G_S1=FolderId&

    3. 15693 to 28303………………………………………….50 pages

    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...G_S1=FolderId&

    4. 28304 to 38703…………………………………………..18 pages

    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...G_S1=FolderId&

    5.East, West, Central, North , Korea and Taiwan Prefixed Codes(1 to 1000)……..17 pages 1945

    This is in English, made for the Occupation,
    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...D&IS_LGC_S32=&

    6. Manchuria Prefixed Codes(1 to 999)……………………………………………………………….41 pages 1945

    This is in English, made for the Occupation,
    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...D=MetaSummary&


    By Theater Lists


    Next “by theater of operations” lists.

    1. Manchuria......... 50 pages 1963
    Units with Kanji codes: 満 (徳、速、羽、路、監、鋭、真鶴、勾玉、不屈、城、岩、公、英邁、英武、奮戦、奏、遠謀、英断、真心、強、 祐、不抜、丈夫、奮励、迫、藤、英機、不動,富獄、敏、陣、凪、弘、奮迅、遠征、光、宰、松風、不撓、鋭峰 、奮進、不朽、奮躍、築、邁進、展、宣武、衣、扶翼、福寿) The codes in the brackets are the new 1944 codes.

    ht
    tp://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/image_C12122424700?IS_STYLE=default&IS_KIND=Simple Summary&IS_TAG_S1=InfoD&IS_KEY_S1=%E5%85%B5%E5%9B% A3%E7%AC%A6%E5%8F%B7&IS_LGC_S32=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    2. Korea and Northern Island......... 49 pages 1963
    Units with Kanji codes:朝(津、展、摧、先、高嶺、要、達、)満(岩、城、光、守、真心、花、徳、達、鋭、赫、敏、強 、監、錦、国、勲、奥、拓、鋭敏、轟、攘、鉾、輜、睦、幡、宗、捷、建、断、鋒、、睦、偕、築 、)


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    3.Northern China Units Part 1........6 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes: 甲、春、島、曙、伸長、至武、桜、呂、栄


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    4.Northern China Units Part 2........12 pages 1963
      Units with Kanji codes:捋、造、国、塁、固、至隆、乙、技、仁、鷺、北、龍、成、至殻、
      至敏、涙風、紫電、


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    5. Northern China Units Part 3........7pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:秀嶺、弾、桐、幹、谷、至剛、至鋭、至巌、戊、響、登、至誠、統


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    6. China Units under Theater Command………9 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:栄、幸、鏡、極、鯨、秋水、呂


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    7. Central China Units Part 1…………….12 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:登、矛、鳶、専、隊、恵、震天、震雷、至堅、肇、矢石、乙、呂。


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    8. Central China Units Part 2……………6 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:守、槍、進撃、操、至旋、馳駆、登、


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...D&IS_LGC_S32=&

    9. Central China Units Part 3……………11 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:統、振起、峯、至猛、至勇、至潔、悟、征、福、善、登、桜、甲、波、呂、呂武、


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    10. Central China Units Part 4……………16 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:呂、広、友、飾、沖、桜、栄、統、波、尚統、開、桧、至強、至烈、秋霜、震動、至威、


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    11. Burma Units Part 1…………………….7 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:森


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    12. Burma Units Part 2…………………….11 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:安、林、祭、烈、弓、策、兵、貫、昆、菊、狼、龍、厳


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    13. Thailand and French Indochina…………9 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:直、義、淀、原、冬、体、威、信、図、勇、討、社、育


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    14.Philippines Units……………….34 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:威、鉄、駿、虎、旭、勤、撃、盟、鎧、尚、玉、垣、泉、豹、拠、抜、星、萩、菅、杉、振武、


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    15. East New Guinea Units………………16 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:明、猛、朝、河、基、沖、剛、力、月、暁、沼、忠、夏、隆、


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    16.West New Guinea Units………………6 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:勢、輝、照、東、雪、巡


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    17. Malaysia, Borneo Units……………….12 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:岡、獄、教、練、鍛、定、基、信、烈、威、静、灘、貫、敢斗、義、森


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    18. Sumatra Units……………………………5 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:富、盤


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    19.Okinawa Units…………………………………10 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:球、石、山、豊、碧、駒、

    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&

    21.Taiwan Units………………………………………………17 pages 1961
    Units with Kanji codes:台、陽、武、剣、蓬、敢、命、興、律、八幡、磐石、破竹、雷神、


    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...=&IS_TAG_S32=&


    Other lists


    There are several hundred list files in the archives by Armies, Divisions, etc here are only a few examples.

    1.14th Army component codes (Phillipines)
    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...D&IS_LGC_S32=&

    2. 1941 list of Heidan Mojifu and Tsushobango allocation ranges for troops in China
    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...D&IS_LGC_S32=&

    3. Order of Battle for China and Tsushogo Codes 50pgs
    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...D&IS_LGC_S32=&

    4. Order of Battle for China and Tsushogo Codes 2 17pgs
    http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/imag...D&IS_LGC_S32=&

  5. #15

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    Dear Nick Komiya,

    Great work! Thank you very much.

    With best wishes
    alter musketier
    In memory of my father who was in K-Einsatz, combat engagement, with the RAD in the Alps in 1945, of my grandfather who was with the IR 87 during campaign in France in 1940 and of my grand-uncle who served in the Gardegrenadierregiment Nr. 3 "K๖nigin Elisabeth" and who was killed in action at Craonne, Chemin des Dames in France in 1917

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