When the Pacific War broke out in the Philippines on 8 December 1941(which was, because of the International Date Line, 7 December 1941 in Hawaii), Julian Jumalon was working as an artist, painting landscapes in oil, operating an airbrush portraiture business, and conducting a small drawing class. On December 29, the Philippine National Bank (PNB) in Cebu received a telegram from Philippine President Manuel L. Quezon authorizing creation of the Cebu Currency Committee and the printing of emergency paper money to help finance the war effort. The committee was chaired by Simeon C. Miranda, acting manager of the PNB/Cebu Branch;
Provincial Fiscal (Attorney General) Feliberto Imperial Reyes and Provincial Auditor Roman T. del Bando were committee members.
Meeting that same afternoon, the committee summoned Jumalon, who, being a deputy air-raid warden, was still in the city. Jumalon's arrival was met with a question from Miranda: "Did you ever design money?" Somewhat shaken, Jumalon replied, "No sir, I have never forged any money." Allaying the artist's fears, Miranda explained that the committee wanted him to design emergency notes and showed him the telegram from President Quezon, as well as examples of the 10-, 20- and 50-centavo emergency circulating notes of 1917. Interestingly, Jumalon remembered these notes from his childhood in Zamboanga, where they were called "Meliciano" money (after the melicianos, or militia recruits).
The committee asked Jumalon first to design a 1-peso note with the creation of 5, 10, 20 and 50 centavos to follow. This plan was set aside however because of the pressing need for money to pay salaries and other necessary expenditures. Instead, the 2-, 5-, 10- and 20-peso notes were produced next. In total, Jumalon completed 18 designs (one for each side of nine denominations
Shortly after their invasion and occupation of the Philippine Islands, the Japanese Government issued occupation currency in denominations of one centavo through one thousand pesos. They decreed that this currency and official pre-occupation Philippine notes were the only "Legal Tender Currencys" that could be used. They also decreed that all emergency or guerrilla notes were illegal and issued severe penalties for anyone caught with them. They tried everything from mass destruction of confiscated notes, to immediate execution of persons caught with guerrilla notes in their possession. Out of frustration, they even attempted several "Buy Back" programs in the attempt to redeem and remove these "illegal" circulating notes. All of these programs were made in an attempt to further confidence in their own occupation currency. None of these programs were successful, and soon they just quit trying for fear of further damaging of the allready fragile Philippine economy. Japanese/Philippine occupation currency never achieved international recognition and through inflation eventually became worthless.
Here some examples from my collection
Was not aware that there were so many different ........... need a break now
I hope the thread can be of use / pleasure for some of you.
The 'Victory' note series was printed in 1944, to be used upon the return of MacArthur. When he came ashore in Leyte on Oct. 20th, 1944, he was purportedly carrying some of these in his pocket. They definately brought many crates full of these notes with them during this landing. According to a BEP report the number 66 (for the series) was chosen because that was President Quezons age when he died just prior to the liberation of the Philippines.
VICTORY notes were printed at the U.S. BUREAU of Engraving and Printing- the last Philippine currency printed by the US.
These currency notes were for use only in the Philippines, and were obligations of the Philippine Treasury. The 500 Peso Philippine Victory Notes were demonetized by the Philippine government on December 31, 1957, and were withdrawn from circulation. At that point, other denominations of the Philippine Victory Notes, Victory Series 66, were no longer regarded as legal tender but could be exchanged or replaced at par, without charge, for legal currency until July 30, 1967. After that date, Series 66 was considered demonetized.
Here some examples...........................
Very interesting, thanks for sharing!