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Brief Chronology Of The Konzentrationslager System

Article about: A BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF THE KONZENTRATIONSLAGER SYSTEM: 1933 February Initial plans made for the detention camp Oranienburg in Prussia. March Himmler orders construction of the first concentra

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    Default Brief Chronology Of The Konzentrationslager System

    A BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF THE KONZENTRATIONSLAGER SYSTEM:



    1933

    February
    Initial plans made for the detention camp Oranienburg in Prussia.

    March
    Himmler orders construction of the first concentration camp at Dachau, near München. The camp is to be guarded by the SS.

    June
    RAD (National Labor Service) camps in the Emsland are converted to punishment camps. A concentration camp is established in a workhouse at Moringen.

    Theodor Eicke becomes Kommandant at Dachau.

    October
    Theodor Eicke expands the punishment directives at Dachau. These directives become effective for all concentration camps until the end of the war.

    1934

    May
    Himmler commissions Eicke to reorganise the concentration camps. KL-Dachau becomes the model.

    July
    SS assigned the responsibility for the Konzentrationslagers.

    Eicke becomes "Inspector of Concentration Camps and of SS Guard Associations."

    December
    Almost all concentration camps are placed under the "Inspekteur der KL" (Inspector for Concentration Camps, or IKL), now reporting to SS-HQ.

    1935

    January
    Gestapo prison Columbia-Haus, Berlin, becomes a concentration camp.

    March

    Concentration camp Oranienburg is closed.

    1936

    June
    KL-Esterwegen is closed.

    August
    Construction of KL-Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg is completed.

    November
    The early camp Columbia-Haus is dissolved.

    1937

    July
    Construction of KL-Buchenwald begins.

    August
    Arrests take place of "elements detrimental to the people," so-called asocials, homosexuals, and Jehovah's Witnesses.

    Lichtenburg is made into a concentration camp for women.

    1938

    March
    Establishment of the SS-owned "Deutsche Erd- und Steinwerke GmbH" (German Soil and Stoneworks Ltd). The initial undertaking is a major brick factory at Sachsenhausen - with another near Buchenwald.

    May
    Construction starts at Flossenbürg.

    July

    Construction starts at Mauthausen near Linz, Austria.

    September
    Construction starts at KL-Neuengamme. Initially a satellite camp of KL-Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg, it becomes an independent concentration camp later.

    November
    Due to the arrest of about 35,000 Jews during Kristallnacht, the number of prisoners in concentration camps increases from around 25,000 to about 60,000.


    1939


    January
    Construction begins at Ravensbrück.

    May
    Women's concentration camp at Lichtenburg closed - prisoners are transferred to the larger women's concentration camp f.KL-Ravensbrück.

    September
    Opening of the Stutthof camp near Danzig. It is initially a camp for civilian prisoners and an SS-Sonderlager. In January 1942, it becomes a concentration camp.

    At the outbreak of WWII, approximately 25,000 people are incarcerated in concentration camps.

    KL-Dachau is temporarily closed until February 1940, due to its use as a training camp for the SS Death's Head units. Inmates of Dachau are sent to KL-Mauthausen.

    October
    Opening of SS-Sonderlager Hinzert.

    First deportations of Jews from Austria and Czechoslovakia to occupied Poland.

    November
    Theodor Eicke becomes commander of all of the SS Death's Head units. Richard Glucks becomes the new inspector of concentration camps.

    Beginning of the deportation of almost 200,000 Poles and 100,000 Jews from the German territory Wartheland to the Generalgouvernement.

    1940

    April
    A commission of specialists from the German Army and the SS visit the Auschwitz site.

    Litzmannstadt ghetto, now containing 160,400 people, is changed into an enclosed ghetto - with the death penalty declared for any unauthorized departure from it.

    May
    Rudolf Höss becomes Kommandant of the new concentration camp Auschwitz.

    June
    The first Polish prisoners arrive at Auschwitz to work on the construction of the camp.

    July
    Dutch prisoners arrive at Konzentrationslager Buchenwald, Weimar.

    August
    Gross-Rosen in Lower Silesia becomes a sub-camp of KL-Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg. The following year it becomes an independent concentration camp.

    1941

    April
    Ghettos are established in Lublin and Radom.

    September
    Auschwitz - hundreds of Soviet POWs are murdered during tests with Zyklon-B in the bunker of Block-XI.

    October
    Initial plans for the camp at Auschwitz-II, Birkenau.

    Soviet POWs are murdered in KL-Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg during tests using gas in converted vehicles.

    November
    Theresienstadt ghetto is established. It becomes a transit station on the way to the extermination camps for Jews from the Protectorat Böhmen und Mähren, and initially, older Jews and children from Germany.

    December
    Mass murder by gas starts at Kulmhof (Chelmno) - the first major camp built exclusively for the mass extermination of human beings. Except for a one year interruption from spring 1943 to 1944, the camp existed until January 1945.

    1942


    January
    Deportations from Germany to Theresienstadt begin.

    March
    Construction of Sobibor begins. Meanwhile, Belzec is operational.

    Concentration camps are subordinated to the WVHA (Chief Office of Economic Administration).

    Start of "Aktion Reinhard". The deportation of Jews from Lublin to the extermination camp at Belzec.

    Auschwitz-II, Birkenau. Bunker-I, and later that spring in Bunker-II, are used as temporary killing installations. Following the decision that these are insufficient, construction begins soon after on much larger and more capable installations - which go into operation early in 1943.

    April
    The completed gas chambers at Sobibor are tested.

    May
    Selections start at Auschwitz-II, Birkenau. Those capable of work are temporarily spared.

    Construction of the extermination camp at Treblinka begins.

    Arbeitslager Monowitz, later known as Auschwitz III, Monowitz, is established and stocked with prisoners used for the construction of the massive Buna-Works (I. G. Farben).

    June
    Major deportations of Jews from France and Austria to Auschwitz begin.

    Belzec's expansion results in a pause in the mass killings.

    July
    Dutch Jews and those from German territory are transported to Auschwitz.

    Due to the expansion of the camp, gassings at Sobibor are suspended until autumn.

    Himmler orders that the extermination of the Jewish population in the Generalgouvernement, named "Aktion Reinhard", is to be completed by the end of 1942. However, the objective was not quite reached by the turn of the year - the three death camps (Belzec, Treblinka and Sobibor), established to accomplish this target are closed between late 1942 and the end of 1943.

    Mass gassings at Treblinka begin.

    August
    Transports of Jews from Belgium to Auschwitz begin. From Vienna and Theresienstadt, Jews are also transported to the extermination camp Maly Trostinec.

    October

    Mass murder by gas begins at KL-Lublin.

    November
    An order is issued that all Jews in concentration camps located within Germany are to be deported to Auschwitz and Lublin. Later that month, the order is extended to Jews working within the arms industry.

    1943

    January
    Concentration camp Kommandants are ordered to reduce the number of deaths among prisoners, who are required for the armaments industry. Meanwhile, camp doctors begin to murder sick inmates or those unfit for work.

    March
    Transports of Jews from Greece to Auschwitz begin.

    The large recently installed extermination facilities at Auschwitz-II, Birkenau begin to operate, initially with Crematoriums IV and II, later with Crematorium V in April and Crematorium III in late June.

    April
    Following the termination of transports to Kulmhof (Chelmno), traces of the extermination facilities are removed.

    Lublin-Majdanek is finally designated as a concentration camp. Previously, the term forced labour camp had been used.

    Establishment of KL-Bergen-Belsen - parts of which had earlier served as a POW camp.

    June
    Himmler orders the Warsaw ghetto to be razed. All ghettos in former Polish or Soviet territories are also to be dissolved with the Jews facing deportation to concentration camps.

    July
    Since early spring, twenty transports of Jews from the Netherlands are sent to Sobibor. Of those people, 34,000 are killed, with only 19 survivors remaining.

    August
    Liquidation of the Gypsy camp at Auschwitz-II, Birkenau: nearly 3,000 men, women and children are murdered by gas.

    Revolt by inmates at Treblinka. The extermination facilities - which had been used to murder approximately three-quarters of a million people are destroyed.

    October
    Prisoners are increasingly loaned out as slave laborers to the armaments industry, being exploited not only in the major sites, but also in the many external Kommandos created outside of the main camps. By the end of 1943, over 500 concentration camp satellites are assigned to industrial concerns - this marks the beginning of a dramatic increase in the number of Aussenlagers (sub-camps), attached to the major concentration camps.

    "Aktion Reinhard" is officially completed after the closure of three extermination camps (Sobibor, Belzec and Treblinka), located within the Generalgouvernement.

    Transports to Auschwitz from Italy begin.

    October
    The Sobibor Revolt. The extermination facilities used to murder more than 250,000 people are destroyed.


    1944

    April
    Large transports of Jews from Greece and Hungary begin.

    An SS order is passed stating that prisoners who have committed "sabotage" in the workplace are to be publicly executed.

    May
    The mass deportations of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz-II, Birkenau begin. The camp reaches its maximum capacity, conditions worsen further.

    Kulmhof (Chelmno) reactivates its killing facilities - for the next few months Jews are once again murdered at the site.

    July
    Prisoners from the Riga and Kauen camps are evacuated to KL-Stutthof near Danzig.

    Soviet forces liberate KL-Lublin.

    September

    All "Nacht und Nebel" ("Night and Fog") prisoners are transferred from prisons to concentration camps.

    All remaining in mates at KL-Natzweiler-Struthof are transported to the Rhine-Neckar area to work in the underground armaments production facilities. The camp headquarters relocates to Guttenbach/Baden.

    October
    Sonderkommando revolt at Auschwitz-II, Birkenau. Many prisoners are killed by the SS following the revolt which resulted in one of the four major crematorium facilities being put out of operation.

    December
    Himmler orders the crematorium facilities and gas chamber complex at Auschwitz-II, Birkenau to be dismantled and blown up.

    1945

    January
    Auschwitz is liberated by Soviet forces.

    March
    Himmler orders that all remaining concentration camps are to be cleared as the enemy approaches from all sides. At least one third of those registered in January as concentration camp prisoners perish during death marches and mass executions.

    April
    British troops liberate KL-Bergen-Belsen. Buchenwald is also liberated.

    May
    US troops liberate the Mauthausen-Gusen camps, Soviet troops liberate Theresienstadt.
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture AUSCH-FEN-2.jpg  
    Last edited by CARL; 02-07-2014 at 02:00 AM.
    Experienced guide and published author leading detailed study trips to the former KZ sites of Nazi Germany. Contact for further details.

    www.concentrationcamptours.com

    www.concentrationcampmoney.com


    "maka akaŋl oyate maŋi pi ki le, tuweŋi wíyópeya oki hi sni"

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    Thanks for your efforts Carl !
    The gates of hell were opened and we accepted the invitation to enter" 26/880 Lance Sgt, Edward Dyke. 26th Bn Northumberland Fusiliers , ( 3rd Tyneside Irish )

    1st July 1916

    Thought shall be the harder , heart the keener,
    Courage the greater as our strength faileth.
    Here lies our leader ,in the dust of his greatness.
    Who leaves him now , be damned forever.
    We who are old now shall not leave this Battle,
    But lie at his feet , in the dust with our leader

    House Carles at the Battle of Hastings

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    Very interesting and informative post.
    If I am not mistaken Dachau's first intake was around 400 prisoners.
    It's been reported 30,000 prisoners were killed.
    Dachau was visited in 1935 by the British legion but I'm sure the horrors of the holocaust regime was not shown.
    Im looking for an a case to an 1936 olympics medal and a case to entry to austria medal. pm me If you have any spare.

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    your knowledge is amazing Carl.

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    Sobering but vital information friend.

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    Thank you gents, appreciate your comments.

    Daniel, the first few hundred prisoners deported to KL-Dachau arrived in March 1933 - they were mostly German Communists, Trade Unionists and other political opponents of the Nazi regime. Within the course of one year, the camp held approximately 5,000 people.
    Experienced guide and published author leading detailed study trips to the former KZ sites of Nazi Germany. Contact for further details.

    www.concentrationcamptours.com

    www.concentrationcampmoney.com


    "maka akaŋl oyate maŋi pi ki le, tuweŋi wíyópeya oki hi sni"

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    Thank you putting that together Carl!

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    Links to recently created threads addressing the locations of the major concentration camps and extermination camps:

    Map Of The Major Concentration Camps

    Map Of The Extermination Camps
    Experienced guide and published author leading detailed study trips to the former KZ sites of Nazi Germany. Contact for further details.

    www.concentrationcamptours.com

    www.concentrationcampmoney.com


    "maka akaŋl oyate maŋi pi ki le, tuweŋi wíyópeya oki hi sni"

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    Great Job!!
    You did an outstanding job on that Carl.
    Thank You!!!
    Semper Fi
    Phil

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    Just found a copy of Das nationalsozialistische Lagersystem by Martin Weinmann, Anne Kaiser, Ursula Krause-Schmitt, of International Tracing Service to replace the copy I "lost" to a friend.

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    This is still one of the most useful and comprehensive reference works of the camp system in Germany and the German occupied territories, originally produced by the ITS in 1949. Mainly German language text but with English translations of the important sections.

    For example I did not know the concentration camp Działdowo, Poland (KL Soldau) was classified by ITS as an Vernichtungslager (extermination camp) although wikipedia has it being established originally as a transit camp (Durchgangslager or Dulag.)

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    Below example pages of the extensive alphabetical list of camp names, locations and type of camp.

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    This reference work also includes a comprehensive chronology of the camps in the German text.
    I collect, therefore I am.

    Nothing in science can explain how consciousness arose from matter.

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