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KL-Lublin

Article about: THE MAIN EVENTS: The summer of 1941 saw another major concentration camp establishment order, with the location chosen being that of the southeastern sector of the occupied Polish city of Lu

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    THE MAIN EVENTS:

    The summer of 1941 saw another major concentration camp establishment order, with the location chosen being that of the southeastern sector of the occupied Polish city of Lublin. Construction began in early autumn, with the first prisoners (around 2,000 Soviet POWs) arriving soon followed by the first Poles, who arrived from the Lublin area. Toward the end of the year, the planned capacity was dramatically increased from 25,000/50,000 to 150,000 - making the Lublin camp the largest within the system. Around this time, the first Jews arrived at the camp. In spring 1942, Jews from the Slovak and Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren arrived and the capacity is again revised, this time reducing the total to 40,000. In the summer, an escape by Soviet POWs sees over 80 make their break for freedom. During autumn, the gas chambers began to operate, just prior to the opening of the women's camp. In February 1943, the camp officially becomes a Konzentrationslager, the SS replacing the previous POW camp title with KL-Lublin. Later that year, mass transports reach Lublin from Warsaw, the Zamość region and the liquidated ghetto in Białystok. September 21st sees the execution of the Sonderkommando ("Special Detail"), a work group of prisoners responsible for the removal and disposal of corpses from the gas chambers. In autumn, a mass execution of Jews, by shooting, takes place. The massacre took place just outside the camp and included at least 8,000 inmates from the camp. It was known as Operation "Erntefest" (Operation Harvest Festival). Sick and unfit for work inmates are later transported to other camps before the end of the year, with the closure of the camp nearing. Spring 1944 sees another escape, this time a small group of nine Poles make their way to freedom, literally days before the first evacuations occur. In May, Soviet aircraft bomb the camp, two months before the final prisoner evacuations take place. Soviet forces finally reached Lublin toward the end of July 1944.

    THE CAMP, INMATES AND STAFF:

    The camp, also known as Majdanek (Little Majdan), had three main sections: (see attachment below for modern museum orientation plan)



    1) The SS Zone
    2) The Administrative Area
    3) The Prisoner's Camp

    The prisoner camp was divided into six sections:

    1) Women's camp
    2) Field hospital for Russian collaborators
    3) Men's camp for Polish political inmates, as well as Jews from Warsaw and Białystok
    4) Another men's camp, which mostly held Soviet POWs, civilians and political prisoners
    5) Men's infirmary camp
    6) Unfinished sector - designed for workshops, barracks, crematoria facilities and gas chambers

    Typical wooden barracks were utilised to hold the inmates, with wooden watchtowers located at regular intervals around the outer fencing. Some sources state three gas chambers were present, others two. Two reconfigured shower rooms were used, with at least one certainly being utilised for mass murder - here, the victims were killed by Zyklon-B. The third chamber reportedly used carbon monoxide as its means of murder. Although a children's camp was planned, it was never completed but some children were transported to the camp. Around thirty nationalities were represented at Lublin, mostly Poles, and Polish, Slovak and Czech Jews. During the first stages of its existence as an offical KL, there were, initially, a few sub-camps including those located on a former airport grounds, at Lipova St. and several labour camps at various locales in the occupied areas. Nowadays, it is estimated that a minimum of 150,000 people were deported to the Lublin camp. Over half perished. The crematorium and makeshift pyres disposed of the masses of corpses in an attempt to mask the slaughter. The camp was the first major concentration camp to be liberated and was captured virtually intact. After the war, a Soviet NKWD camp was founded at the site.

    Lublin's Kommandants were Karl Koch, Max Koegel, Hermann Florstedt, Martin Weiß and finally, Arthur Liebehenschel - all are pictured below.

    IMAGES:

    1) State museum orientation plan
    2-6) Kommandants (L-R) Koch, Koegel, Florstedt, Weiß and Liebehenschel (credit - wikipedia)
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture LUBLIN.plan.JPG   K.Koch.jpg  

    M.Koegel.jpg   H.Florstedt.jpg  

    M.Weiss.jpg   A.Liebehenschel.jpg  

    Experienced guide and published author leading detailed study trips to the former KZ sites of Nazi Germany. Contact for further details.

    www.concentrationcamptours.com

    www.concentrationcampmoney.com


    "maka akaŋl oyate maŋi pi ki le, tuweŋi wíyópeya oki hi sni"

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    Various views including the permanent exhibition, crematorium, watchtower, gas chamber and memorial.

    (I do not own the images attached, I am unable to attach my own files at present)
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture lbl.musP3.JPG   lbl.barC2.jpg  

    lbl.kremT1.jpg   lbl.kremT6.jpg  

    lbl.wachtH1.jpg   lbl.gaskB1.jpg  

    lbl.memA4.jpg  
    Experienced guide and published author leading detailed study trips to the former KZ sites of Nazi Germany. Contact for further details.

    www.concentrationcamptours.com

    www.concentrationcampmoney.com


    "maka akaŋl oyate maŋi pi ki le, tuweŋi wíyópeya oki hi sni"

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    Pictured below, a scarce example of a postal confirmation card, sent from the camp to confirm that a prisoner had recently received a parcel - this service, which ran during the 1943-1944 period, was initiated by the Red Cross organisation and is confirmed by surviving documentation. Note the dual language (German + Polish) format.
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture LUBLIN-A (3).JPG   LUBLIN-A (1).JPG  

    LUBLIN-A (4).jpg  
    Experienced guide and published author leading detailed study trips to the former KZ sites of Nazi Germany. Contact for further details.

    www.concentrationcamptours.com

    www.concentrationcampmoney.com


    "maka akaŋl oyate maŋi pi ki le, tuweŋi wíyópeya oki hi sni"

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    Once again , thank you Carl for this thread that shows the evil of the Third Reich and their flawed ideology. Those images of the inmates shirts really strike home, I pray the "wearers " of these garments survived to live meaningful lives. Leon.
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture Capture.PNG  
    "Always do sober what you said you'd do drunk. That will teach you to keep your mouth shut." Ernest Hemingway

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    Great photos Carl..the KL commanders photos alone adds fright to the thread I believe Koch was also Commandant of another camp also. Regards Larry
    It is not the size of a Collection in History that matters......Its the size of your Passion for it!! - Larry C

    One never knows what tree roots push to the surface of what laid buried before the tree was planted - Larry C

    “The farther back you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see.” - Winston Churchill

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    Karl-Otto Koch ran many KZ's-including his stint at Buchenwald along with his "charming beauty" of a wife Ilse Koch. He was shot by execution by the German's, themselves,one week before the camp was liberated on April 5,1945, for a laundry list of crude crimes he and his staff had been found guilty of-including common Murder.
    William

    "Much that once was, is lost. For none now live who remember it."

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    Quote by Wagriff View Post
    Karl-Otto Koch ran many KZ's-including his stint at Buchenwald along with his "charming beauty" of a wife Ilse Koch. He was shot by execution by the German's, themselves,one week before the camp was liberated on April 5,1945, for a laundry list of crude crimes he and his staff had been found guilty of-including common Murder.
    Thank you gents.

    Indeed, the life of Karl Koch is a twisted tale. He was one of the original group of Kommandants that led various early camps such as Columbia, Esterwegen and Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg, later moving to Buchenwald to take command at the new camp there. Sex, alcohol abuse, fraud and theft corrupted him until finally, he was shot following an investigation. He was relieved of his duties at Lublin following the escape of Soviet POWs I mentioned ealier in the thread.
    Experienced guide and published author leading detailed study trips to the former KZ sites of Nazi Germany. Contact for further details.

    www.concentrationcamptours.com

    www.concentrationcampmoney.com


    "maka akaŋl oyate maŋi pi ki le, tuweŋi wíyópeya oki hi sni"

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    As always excellent information friend.
    I really appreciate the detailed knowledge you impart to us.

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    thanks Carl.

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    Howdy Carl been a minute. Got a question for you and the forum

    when i was reading this most interesting post i saw the picture of Arthur Liebehenschel. Now, when exactly did he rule as the Kommandant of KL-Lublin? Im trying to piece together his timeline, without using Wiki (lol). I did not know he had anything to do with KL-Lublin since he was known for his stint at Auschwitz. Thanks -brian
    Octavian

    Looking to buy a Museum Quality, cased EK1. A stamped "7" would be awesome to find!

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