Enjoy this original German Smoke Grenade Manual.. Berlin 1941...BILL
Enjoy this original German Smoke Grenade Manual.. Berlin 1941...BILL
"As long as there are brave men and warriors the halls of Valhalla will never be silent or empty"
In memory of my father William T. Grist December 26, 1920--September 10, 2009..
901st. Ordnance H.A.M. North Africa, Italy, Southern France....ETO
Also in memory of my mother Jane Kidd Grist Feb. 22, 1920-- September 27, 2009... WWll War bride May 1942...
Very Nice and Very Rare,, thank you for sharing.
Very cool,I would love to have the grenade case!!!My brother-in law once set off a US smoke grenade, in my childhood yard,and shut down an interstate.......oooops
Thought you might be interested in this. It wouldn't surprise me if the this article was lifted more or less directly from a copy of your manual.
Translated from WAFFEN REVIEW, No. 3, Dec. 1971, pp. 471 - 482
An essential element of close combat with tanks in the Second World War was the use of smoke munitions. With them, the visibility and movement of the tank crews could be considerably restricted. In addition, if the smoke penetrated the crew compartment, the crew could be forced to leave the vehicle. Irritation caused by smoke was possible only in enclosed spaces, however.
The chief purpose for the use of smoke is to hinder the visibility and movement of passing tank crews and mount an attack that destroys the tank.
Smoke munitions in use:
1. Smoke flask 1H and 2H (BK 1H and BK 2H)
Figure 1: Smoke flask 1H
a = BK 1 H, b = packaging
Figure 2: Smoke flask 2H
a = outer container
b = inner container
c = rilled neck
The older form, the BK 1H, did not prove successful as the smoke flask was unwieldy and was packed one to a box. It was soon replaced by the BK 2H
The BK 2H consisted of a glass body like the older model 1H. The outer container was filled with titanium tetrachloride and silicon tetrachloride. The inner container, a glass tube, contained a cold-resistant calcium chloride salt solution to enhance the production of smoke. A cement mass formed the fastener. The neck of the body was rilled for better extraction from the packaging. (see Figure 2)
The BK 2H was effective to –40 degrees of frost, weighed 370 grams, and was securely packed 4 to a carrier carton (see Figures 3 to 5). Eleven of these carrying cartons were packed in a case.
Figure 3: Packing of the BK 2H
Figure 4: Cover side of the carrying carton
Figure 5: Side view of the carrying carton
a = Directions, b = carrying strap, c = adhesive strip, d = rip cord
In use, the smoke flask was transported in sealed packaging. First, shortly before use, the tear cord was removed from the packaging in the direction indicated by the arrow and the cover of each smoke flask was removed (because of the danger of breakage).
Figure 6: Smoke flask shortly before the throw.
Figure 7: The BK breaking on a Russian T34 tank.
Figure 8: The crew leaving the tank due to the effect of the smoke.
Then the BK is held in the hollow of the hand so that the index finger lies on the upper curve of the flask (see Figure 6). From cover, the BK is thrown against the turret ring, the observation slits or the optics of the hostile tank. On impact, a smoke cloud develops which leaves the tank in a mass of smoke (see Figure 7).
The flask should be thrown so that the smoke penetrates the crew compartment and its effect forces the crew to leave the tank (see Figure 8). At the least, the smoke should eliminate the crew's visibility so that the way is now clear for the use of hollow charge weapons or other means of destroying the tank.
The smoke cloud lasts 15 to 20 seconds.
Although the smoke of the BK is harmless in the open air and produces only coughing and nausea in closed rooms, the smoke material fluid has unpleasant effects. Smoke material on clothing could cause the fabric to decompose. On unprotected skin it causes strong reddening and if it penetrates the eyes, immediate medical treatment is necessary. Light mists on the clothing and skin have to be cleaned immediately with water and soap.
Therefore, the smoke flasks had to be handled carefully and protected from breakage.
2. Smoke grenade 39 (Nb.Hgr.39)
Figure 9: Using the Model 39 smoke hand grenade.
Figure 10: Packing case with 15 Model 39 smoke hand grenades.
The same effect could be obtained with the Model 39 smoke grenade. Vis-à-vis the BK grenade, it had the advantage that it could not fracture, but the disadvantage that it could not be simply thrown against a moving tank. In order to prevent the grenade from rolling off, it was necessary to counterweight it by tying it to a piece of wood. This also had the disadvantage that one had to approach the tank very closely in order to throw this assembly over the barrel of the gun.
The Model 39 smoke grenade differed from the Model 24 hand grenade by a white band on the handle and on the head of grenade, as well as the inscription "Nb.Hgr.39". So that it would not be mistaken for the Model 24 grenade in the dark, later versions had grooves at the base of the handle (see Figure 15).
In place of a piece of wood as a counterweight, in practice a second smoke grenade was used. By doing this a thicker smoke cloud developed, which was necessary in a crosswind.
Because of its disadvantages, the smoke grenade was used mainly to change the direction of a tank or to capture an undamaged tank. The grenade was thrown into the open crew compartment and the crew forced to leave the vehicle. This again compelled the thrower, well-camouflaged, to await the approach of the tank (which naturally required great courage) and then go into action.
The throwing of this counterweighted grenade was certainly not simple and required much practice. In the fumigating of machine gun nests, bunkers and shelters, however, the smoke grenade proved itself.
Operation was similar to the Model 24 grenade. (See Waffen Review, No. 1, pp. 123-128)
Fifteen pieces were packed in a case made out of sheet metal with a folding handle and was easily carried (see Figure 10). The smoke filler consists of a mixture of zinc dust and Hexachlorathan. Ignition is by the time fuse BZ 59 and the N 4 igniter.
3. Smoke grenade 39B (Nb.Hgr. 39 B)
The Nb.Hgr. 39 B was introduced later and differs from the Nb.Hgr. 39 only in the mixture ratio of the smoke filling in which less zinc dust and more Hexachlorathan was used. In the original packing case in Figure 10, it can be seen that both types were made to be packed together. Therefore, there are no differences in packaging.
Figure 11: Smoke grenade 41
b = Threaded ring
c = Smoke emission holes
d = Smoke munitions markings
Figure 12: Smoke grenade 41 in section
a = Smoke filling
b = Threaded ring
e = Inner casing with igniter well
Figure 13: Pull igniter 39
a = Round pull knob, b = Pull cord, c = Friction igniter, d = Friction wire, e = Safety cap
Figure 14: Ignition primer N 4
a = Aluminum tube, b = Igniter compound, c = First fire mixture, d = Safety cap, e = Coat of paint (green)
4. Smoke grenade 41 (Nb.Hgr. 41)
In contrast to the Nb.Hgr. 39, the Nb.Hgr. 41 had no handle. It consisted of a cylindrical container with the same filling as the Nb.Hgr. 39 and weighed 530 grams (see Figure 11).
The Nb.Hgr. 41 was sealed by 2 covers. The inner cover (e) with igniter well covered the smoke filling. The upper cover with two emission holes (c) and a threaded ring for screwing in the pull igniter 39 formed the actual cover.
To ignite the grenade, the pull igniter 39 and primer N 4 were used.
The pull igniter 39 (see Figure 13) is a friction igniter without time delay and upper part (a) that consists of an unscrewable (left-hand thread) spherical knob containing the pull cord (b), the lower part with thread for screwing into the igniter well, the friction primer (c) and the friction wire (d). The safety cap (e) is screwed on the thread of the lower part and serves as a moisture seal in storage. It is removed before screwing in the igniter.
The N 4 primer has an aluminum barrel (a), which is filled with the igniter compound. At its end is a metal cup with the first fire mixture pressed in (c). The aluminum barrel is sealed by a cardboard safety cap (d) that protects the first-fire mixture and which is removed before use.
The green paint distinguishes the N4 igniter from the No. 8 detonator.
Twenty-four Nb.Hgr. 41 were packed in a case, including the accompanying igniters in special boxes.
First the igniter, with the green paint leading, is put into the cap well and the friction igniter is screwed in after the safety caps are removed. Ignition results from an abrupt pull on the spherical knob.
Immediately after pulling the knob, the grenade had to be thrown. Approximately 3 seconds after pulling the knob, a gray smoke cloud developed. The smoke duration was 100 to 120 seconds.
Because of the comparatively short burning time of the Nb.Hgr. 41, it could not be used to conceal oneself. Rather, it was suited for temporary, but quick screens of the enemy and for clearing them out. Due to the high heat developed by the burning grenade, it could also be used to set fire to dry underbrush.
Some safety procedures had to be noted for use. One was not allowed to bring the fingers near the smoke emission holes due to the heat of combustion. In closed rooms, the smoke was dangerous. The grenades had to be protected against moisture and could not be transported on rail cars or trucks with other ammunition or together with flare or signal munitions. Also, when in storage, a safety distance of 5 meters to other ammunition had to kept.
5. Smoke candle 39 and 39B
We see another means of close-combat tank fighting in the smoke candle. Through the larger volume of the body, the effect could be maintained for from 4 to 7 minutes, depending on the wind.
The smoke filling here also consisted of a mixture of zinc dust and Hexachlorathan, and the mixture ratio for the Model 39 differed from that in the Model 39B.
a = Smoke candle 39B, b = Fast smoke candle 39, c = Smoke grenade 39, d = Igniter N4, e = Friction igniter 29, f = Friction igniter 39
The ignition took place by means of the Model 29 friction igniter. The handle on the upper cover shows that the Nb.K. 39 could be held while it was burning. This required contact with the tank.
The height of the smoke candle was approximately 14 cm, the diameter 9 cm, and the weight about 2000 grams.
Figure 16: A paratrooper approached a hostile tank and was able to ignite the Nb.K. 39. The smoke begins to escape from the opening.
Figure 17: The smoke comes closer…
Figure 18: …and enshrouds the tank.
Figure 19: One keeps the smoke candle perpendicular, so that the smoke can penetrate into the crew compartment through the cracks.
So that the smoke candles, which were moisture-sensitive, could be transported by water, according to O.K.H. order of October 20, 1943, “Waterproof containers for the Nb.K. 39 (SK f Nb K 39)” were introduced. It denoted a hollow, sheet metal container that was created as a carrier for a smoke candle. Twelve of these carriers were packed in a box.
The Pioneer boats came equipped as follows: Pioneer assault boat 42, Pioneer cargo boat and Pioneer cargo ferry all with 24; 250-horsepower motor boats with 12 and Pioneer assault boat 39 with 4 carriers.
A carrier weighed 830 grams and an empty box for 12 carriers weighed 11 kilograms.
By means of electric ignition, the Nb.K.S. 39 was fired out of smoke projectors mounted on the outside of various tanks. It was equipped with the throwing charge 1 and the igniter N4.
Other smoke munitions will be described in later editions of ‘Waffen-Review”.
Very useful info, thanks for posting it.
found few weeks ago in old house ( not by me
Very Nice..... Mike
Lucky ,,lucky begger,,, what a find,,fantastic stuff.
I found me one for my collection..not mint but in good shape till I find a better one.
Nebels,, What fantastic items they are and with lots of character, I picked up this can and mounted it to a nice spare nebel handle I have while tracking down the right handle for it,,, near impossible i thought ,,,,, then,,,,I got lucky and found this one in the spare handles i have ,,,the exact handle fot this Nebel,, same makers marks identicle ,, perfect,