Maybe someone can help in understanding some of this hand writing.
I am also trying to understand the right page word underlined in brown.
MANY MANY THANKS
Maybe someone can help in understanding some of this hand writing.
I am also trying to understand the right page word underlined in brown.
MANY MANY THANKS
i hope i can help you.
left side translation:
The following passport holders have received today a certificate of urgency after emigrating palestina.
paid-in value of 180 reichsmark, made notes in English only ..?
RM 10 - August ........
RM 25/50 due to emergency certificate
Best Reguard near from the Huertgenforest
Thank you very very much!
I added more scans of the reisepass.
Interesting is the stamp for "Palestina-Treuhandstelle zur Beratung deutscher Juden GmbH" inside, the organization which helped the Jews leave Germany to Palestine.
very interesting, i found something by google and google translate it.
Befor i dont no about these things.
Are the papers from your Family?
The emigration of Jews from Germany [and Poland] from 1933 to 1939
Introduction by Michael Palomino
Report from the Institute of Contemporary History, Self-Institute for Contemporary History. Munich 1958, p.79-84, Tel: 0049 - (0) 89-12688-0
Original page numbers] in [brackets.
The Hitler regime had met with Zionist organizations from September 1933 several agreements on emigration of German Jews to Palestine. The vast majority of German Jews, however, took the opportunity to emigrate to Palestine, not because the British colonial power, the immigration quota for Palestine held low. The German Jews who have been granted emigration to Palestine, could recover parts of their assets in kind in Israel. According to "America" and South Africa was more difficult for them to emigrate because of the required professions. The emigration to Italy was legally possible, but Italy had even the emigration of Italians to organize so that there was hardly room for the reception of German Jews. On the other hand, especially young Jews from Eastern Europe succeeded, especially Polish Jews, 1933-1939, the emigration overseas, because they were sought after artisans and agricultural workers. An excellent supplement to this article can be found in the Encyclopaedia Judaica of 1971 under "Germany".
The legal emigration of Jews from Germany between 1933 and 1939 was mainly hampered by three factors:
First, 1933 was still suffering from all states in Europe and overseas, in the aftermath of the great Depression, and everywhere there was mass unemployment, as well as in the following years, the economic situation improved in many countries even completely normal, were the responsible statesmen, entrepreneurs and labor leaders, the unemployed army is always a time of crisis in mind, and given its position in all matters of economic policy. So even changed economically well-off people and poor countries under the psychological impact of the economic crisis, its being radically reduced immigration quotas, not without difficulty only immigrants have been adopted, which could prove a particular property or rely on the guarantee of relatives and friends. Of these two possibilities for the German Jews were almost only the second consideration, since the draconian German foreign exchange laws in practice allowed no more than to bring along a pocket. (For the exceptions in the period between 1937 and mid-1938, see below). The general attitude of foreign countries changed little, when, after Hitler's seizure of the necessity of Jewish emigration from Germany was recognized and acknowledged everywhere in theory.
Secondly, the professional stratification of German Jews, a hard-Weighing obstacle to a generous set dar. emigrate to countries which admitted of a restricted immigration, namely, strict view was that the immigrants were recruited only from those occupations in which the country itself Lack suffered, it could not resolve in the foreseeable future on its own. The brief included mainly agricultural workers, industrial workers and artisans, professionals, therefore, was where the German Jewry, which was designed essentially represented commercially and academically, is very small.
These obstacles could have been at least partially eliminated when the Jewish and partly existing and partly rapidly constituent agencies would have been able to devote its financial resources exclusively to the German Jews, ie, to finance extensive retraining programs and the emigrants, the so-called "show-money" (which the State wanted to immigrate to the one detected initial capital), at least temporarily, to make available.
But that was thwarted by a third factor: the emigration of German Jews was only one part - and not even the biggest - a general Jewish exodus from central, eastern and south-(p.79) from Europe. Emigrated from Poland in the years after 1933, a year from about 100,000 Jews (Germany: 25.000-28.000) both because of the growing anti-Semitic attitude of the Polish government as well because of the increasingly progressive economic impoverishment of the Polish Jews. Similar trends were seen in Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and, to a lesser degree, in Hungary. Then of course, these Jews in the Jewish organizations to individuals requesting assistance and support had remained the means for the emigration of German Jews always limited.
In addition to these external difficulties, emigration was also constrained by internal causes, which now easily overlooked or are respected in their meaning too low. Apart from the fundamental absurdity and morally reprehensible racial discrimination at all, was the overwhelming majority of Germans of Jewish descent do not completely different and all the rest of the Germans against alien and dangerous as anti-Semitic madness wanted. It was rather about people who felt themselves bound by their culture and their national commitment to Germany after no less than other Germans. They clung to their homes and were not able to understand that their people that they do not belong at one time but should be radically ejected. They could not imagine that her life was threatened if they also expected under the Nazi regime with a narrow and very modest existence. But they wanted to be accepted than to lose their homeland and abandoned.
As far as the German Jews, despite the difficulties enumerated but emigrated, was probably the most frequently used the opportunities offered by the guarantee and support of expatriate friends and relatives. More rarely, emigration, with the financial support of German-Jewish and international organizations, such as the Aid Association of Jews in Germany,) ICA (Jewish Colonization Association) and the HICEM (umbrella organization of some international aid organizations. Thus, the Aid Association for allowing the Jews in Germany, eg 1935 927 Jews to emigrate to Europe and 1617 persons in overseas countries, the HICEM helped in the same year 2222 Jews to emigrate. Among the organizations supported by these Jews, it was, however, in general, at members of the target countries desirable occupations or to younger people who had been retrained on their recent activities in a profession that was favorable to emigration, these Jews were given only the "show-money, which they also had to demonstrate, given or advanced.
Temporarily, between 1937 and mid-1938, also promoted the emigration of the German state, but in his own way. Jews with at least 30,000 RM (two persons) and 50,000 RM assets (for three or more members) (p.80) were allowed to transfer at this time a certain portion of their money while the rest retained by the Treasury and from the so-called "Alttreu fund was established. Several thousand unterbemittelte emigrants received from this fund her "show-money" amounting to 600-900 gold marks per person. Mid-1938 but the funds were exhausted.
Approximately one third of all Jews emigrating to Palestine went (from 1.2.1933 to 1.4.1936 approximately 34,000). In regard to the immigration quotas of other countries, large numbers explained by the fact that an international Jewish migration flowed systematically steered into Palestine was granted to the German Jews, a relatively high quota. Above all, the possibility existed to transfer money from Germany to Palestine. In September 1933, namely, was between Zionist circles and the Ministry of Economics, an agreement has been reached (Havarah Agreement) to promote the genuine desire of the then Nazi leadership, the emigration of German Jews, as well as export and foreign exchange needs of the German economy, Finally, equally the interests of German Jews and Palestinians to meet him. German-Jewish immigrants were followed by the Palestine trust company to advise of German Jews LLC " its cash deposit.
Formed with this money from the fund could be paid for exports of the German economy to Palestine about half the residual sum of Palestine had to muster in contrast, foreign exchange (foreign currency per share ranged) by type of commodity and foreign exchange position of the empire. In Palestine, took over the Havarah (which gave its name to the agreement) the sale of German goods and paid back the creditors of the emigrants' Paltreu "then made their deposits. In this way, many German Jews were able to save a considerable portion of their assets and dare to emigrate under reasonably favorable conditions. In November 1938 the agreement with the "Kristallnacht and its subsequent laws of the Reich government was irrelevant. Paltreu and Havarah had incidentally taken internally for the rule that well-off emigrants to Palestine were not fully disbursed, but leave a portion of their assets to destitute German Jews were to lead to an existence in Palestine. The rule of thumb was called: "A wealthy expatriate must take two poor."
For those who wanted to emigrate to Palestine, was also known as the Jewish Relief Association established "Palestine Office" to help. This office, which in 1936 had 23 branches in the kingdom, held lectures and courses of instruction and issued publications to prepare for the emigrants on conditions in their new home. Even so, the chance to go to Palestine, from many well-funded German Jews was not used. First came to Palestine in general, only younger people in question. Second, many wealthy Jews showed no inclination to abandon their civilian lives and milieu, but strove to come in at least a similar environment (p.81), she prefers to go waiting for years for an opportunity to USA, South Africa or Italy to be able to lead than in the Middle East, a colonist existence have.
Finally, Palestine was a land that Jewish immigrants in general, only be attracted if they at least still remains or re-tracked approach of Jewish religious tradition and national Jewish Zionist idea in itself. And the very wealthy middle-class German Jews had assimilated to such an extent that they are accessible to only a few cases were. On the whole, left up to the 9th November 1938 ( "Crystal Night"), about 170,000 Jews, Germany, one becoming increasingly difficult given the small number oppression
Illegal emigration was relatively rare. While crossing the border could not be prevented, of course, and theoretically the illegal immigrants were open to all states bordering on Germany, but in practice there was for the immigrants without a visa or immigration, do not leave any possibility of life. He could neither work, nor could he remain undisturbed in a country, because he was undocumented, he was ruthlessly expelled by specific deadlines. Chased from state to state, he led a miserable life, which drove some to suicide. The fact that most European countries strongly condemned the Nazi policy toward Jews, had on their attitude toward the refugees from this threat to no effect. In other things were naturally, when it managed an illegal emigrant, large sums of money to smuggle precious jewelry or other significant value across the border, as he then was able to procure the necessary papers.
Illegal Emigration closed but always such a high risk one, be it at the border or across the border that you normally saw in it no way. This is less so, than the whole emigration movement to the "Kristallnacht" not an escape from an acute threat, but an evasion of a true continuous, but was relatively slow, progressive risk of existence, so that most Jews preferred to a longer time to wait for a chance to emigrate legally. Exceptions, however, were isolated events that aroused panic among sections of the German Jewish sentiments and led to irregular escapes across the border. Here would be especially Hitler's rise to itself and the weeks that followed her wild SA-called terror, besides the 1 April 1933 (boycott day). Thousands of Jews who fled at that time but returned in the course of 1934 to Germany, for the reasons they never could find a livelihood base. There were also cases in which individual Jews by local party leaders or individual terrorism by the conflict with Nazi rules (such as the Nuremberg Laws) to precipitate and therefore mostly illegal emigration were forced.
In addition to Palestine, from 1933 to 1939 the main destination countries of Jewish emigration from Germany to the United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Colombia, Bolivia, South Africa. However, the (p.82) United States of the Great Depression in the first two years after 1933 were not a desired goal (1931 to 1935 exceeded the total escapement from them, migration to 79'634 people!) While later, a little pro-Jewish immigration policies drove. Jews were allowed to emigrate to the U.S. only in the context of overall national rate, and even then they had to demonstrate a financial guarantee provided by relatives or friends. Even in these cases the American Consulate in Berlin, Hamburg and Stuttgart Jewish immigration applications are often rejected. In addition, the Jewish newspapers in Germany, warned the commercial, industrial and academic professionals working Jews to emigrate to North America, since it merely skilled workers and academics from the university, possibly even professional chemists have prospects.
Doctors and lawyers have been discouraged by the fact that they did their American counterparts have to make up tests, which requires, above all among the legal profession due to the large differences between the Anglo-Saxon and German law, a by years of study have, that could allow financial least. The other above-mentioned U.S. states allowed the immigration of farm workers and industrial only skilled workers or the Jews with relatives guarantee. On the other hand had in South Africa, besides the people mentioned, engineers certain possibilities.
Europe went back to the overseas countries in importance. Here, only the migration to France was numerically significant, but it was France, as well as Holland, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, also seen with longer stay for more than a way station for the onward journey to Palestine or America. The German Jews were given for these countries, although often without great difficulties temporary or permanent residence permit, they could not work in general and have been therefore forced weiterzuwandern generally, or just go directly overseas. After all, for example could by between 1 February 1933 and April 1, remain about 20,000 emigrants in 1936 in Western Europe.
Requirement has been to support from relatives, friends or Jewish charities. Temporary emigrants were currency for Austria, Hungary, Chile and Paraguay are available. Of this possibility could naturally only a tiny proportion of German Jews to use. Shanghai permitted entry without conditions and limitations, but neither offered the possibility of a professional life or a chance to proceed. No European country or overseas, but showed a tendency to members of the (for him useless occupations of trade, banking, business, entrepreneurs, academics), which was incorporated into the mass of German Jews worked, unless they could prove their own wealth or wealthy relatives .
Even the attempts of the League to change this setting, were in vain. On 26 October 1933 was appointed by the (p.83) League of Nations a High Commissioner for Refugees (James G. MacDonald), but even at 31 December 1935 in protest against the rigid attitude of the states involved resigned his office. The meeting devoted to the problem of Jewish emigration from Evian (Switzerland) [Error: Evian is situated on the French side of Lake Geneva], from 6 to 15 Met in July 1938, yielded no results. Only Australia, which had hitherto been sharply negative, agreed to 1939 to 1941 included 15,000 German Jews, a program that is not walked out because of the outbreak of war on certain approaches.
Transit in order to emigration overseas was allowed by all European countries, whenever the immigration permit for an overseas state could be demonstrated, this was not the case, transit times, but not always refused, because it was feared that the refugee would not get ahead and stay in the country.
Italy's attitude to the German-Jewish emigrants from 1933 to 1939 was intended not unlike that of other European and non-European States: neither pro-Jewish nor anti-Semitic, but essentially on purely economic considerations. In November 1936, a senior Italian Government officials denied, particularly in regard to this issue in discussion with the representatives of the Jewish Telegraph Agency public a message of "Izvestia" that Italy would not change its position on the Jewish question and anti-Semitic course take, and remarked, Italy made no distinction between citizens. But Italy was forced to look for its own population by emigration and settlement possibilities, and immigrants, even if it had intended, no opportunity arose, turned to relatively little German Jews there.
That there were still several thousand that had its basis in the contract concluded between Italy and Germany, clearing agreements, providing for the transfer of funds specifically for emigrants. So there was the possibility of an allocation to the gain at the Reichsbank for the Italian central bank clearing account, a banking-led credit in Italy. It was used by German Jews, to save at least part of their assets, but also came only benefit a relatively small number. Both these groups like the destitute who had come to Italy Italy considered only as a springboard for overseas emigration. Apart from a few relatively harmless anti-Jewish laws that were enacted in the period shortly before the war, the real change took place in Italy on anti-Semitic policies after its entry into the war (June 10, 1940), probably out on German initiative.
- Mark Wischnitzer: The Jewish migration under the Nazi rule 1933-1939. In: C. (entral) V. (erein) newspaper. Allgemeine Zeitung Judaism 1935, 1936, 1937. (P.84)
- Heinz Ganther: The Jews in Germany. An almanac. - Frankfurt 1953, 14ff.
- Hans Lamm: The internal and external development of the German Jews in Nazi Germany - Erlangen, Phil Diss 1951st
27.3. 1956 Graml
Danke! great information!