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photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

Article about: Biogramy Walenty Nowak W latach 1932 – 1935 był z-cą dowódcy 52 pułku piechoty Strzelców Kresowych w Złoczowie, od stycznia 1937 roku dowódcą 48 pułku piechoty

  1. #31

    Default Re: photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

    Beautiful work Mariusz. Well done!
    All thoughts and opinions expressed are those of my own and should not be mistaken for medical and/or legal advice.

    "Tomorrow hopes we have learned something from yesterday." - John Wayne

  2. #32
    3mk
    3mk is offline
    ?

    Default Re: photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

    Mariusz great display!

    Is the 52 PP badge the exact one he was awarded or a replacement?

    Once again wonderful display, I would love to have 1 in my house just like it!

  3. #33

    Default Re: photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

    Thank you. Unfortunately I had to buy the badge, the original badge, medals got lost in maybe last 20-30 years, I still remember my grandparents having uniform, eagle, badges, and medals. But it is better than just print of the badge, and it looks much better, than in the picture.

  4. #34

    Default Re: photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

    More picture in my collection.
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  5. #35

    Default Re: photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

    More picture
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  6. #36

    Default Re: photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

    It is last item that I got it looks much better then in the pictures.
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  7. #37

    Default Re: photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

    Edward Rydz-Śmigły

    During the Polish-Soviet War (1919 – 1921), Rydz commanded Polish armies in several offensives. Among the victorious engagements, he captured Wilno and Dünaburg. After that, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Latvian armed forces, and liberated Livonia from Red Army. Subsequently, he completely annihilated the Red Army's 12th Division and took Kiev. He then commanded the Central Front of Polish forces during the Battle of Warsaw, known as the Miracle on the Vistula. In this decisive battle, Polish commander Józef Piłsudski outwitted the Soviet commander Mikhail Tukhachevsky. Rydz-Śmigły's Central Front held against the Soviet attack, and later blocked the escape routes for the defeated 4th and 15th Armies and the 3rd Cavalry Corps of Soviet General Gayk Bzhishkyan, which had to fly ungloriously to East Prussia, where they were interned by the Germans.
    In March 1939, Hitler occupied Bohemia and Moravia and created the satellite client-state of Slovakia. This encircled Poland with an iron ring on all sides except the east. Rydz was the only member of the government who clearly saw the impending danger of a conflict with Germany. However, time remaining was too short for the creation of completely new Polish operation plans in the west. During negotiations in Moscow during August 1939, Rydz refused all attempts by the Western Powers to obtain Polish permission for the Red Army to march westward, stating: "there is no guarantee that the Soviets will really take active part in the war; furthermore, once having entered Polish territory, they will never leave it".

    Second Man in the State
    After the 1919-21 war he was appointed the Inspector-General of the Polish Army in the Vilna district and later in Warsaw. In 1926, during Piłsudski's coup d'état (the May Coup), he took the Marshal's side and sent troops from Wilno to reinforce anti-government troops in Warsaw. Piłsudski never forgot this fidelity and in 1929 Rydz was appointed as the Marshal's deputy on all matters concerning the East. On May 13, 1935, following Piłsudski's death, Rydz was nominated by the president and the government of Poland to serve in the capacity of the Inspector-General of the Polish Armed Forces (the highest Polish military office). This was done in accordance with Piłsudski's wishes. Piłsudski's death saw his followers (the Sanacja), divide themselves into three main factions: those supporting President Ignacy Mościcki as Piłsudski's successor, those supporting Rydz, and those supporting prime minister Walery Sławek. With a view to eliminating Slawek from the game, Mościcki concuded a power-sharing agreement with Rydz-Śmigły, which saw Slawek marginalised as a serious political player by the end of the year. As a result of this agreement, Rydz-Śmigły was to become the de facto leader of Poland, until the outbreak of the war, whilst Mościcki remained influential through continuing in the highest office of president. From 1935, Rydz saw himself rapidly elevated in rank and position. On the 15 July 1936 he was officially awarded the title of "Second Man in the State after the President", by the Polish prime minister. On November 10, he was promoted to the rank of Marshal of Poland. Rydz's image as Piłsudski's anointed successor was popularized by the Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego movement, but alienated many of Piłsudski's supporters, offended by what they saw as Rydz's acts of self-promotion.


    On 1 September 1939 when the Germans invaded Poland, Śmigły-Rydz was named Commander-in-Chief of Polish forces. On 7 September, along with most of the government, he evacuated Warsaw as it came under attack. Soon afterwards, Polish coordination began to suffer from communications problems, which impaired Rydz's ability to command the forces. In Brest (Brześć) on 11 September he ordered that the Polish capital be defended at all costs. In his plan, Warsaw and the nearby Modlin Fortress were to become two redoubt citadels in central Poland, fighting on for months, while the bulk of Polish forces were to defend the Romanian bridgehead and await the counterattack promised by Poland's French and British allies. Unknown to Śmigły-Rydz, the Western Allies had no such plans and expected Poland's fall. His plan was further crippled when Soviet forces attacked Poland from the east on 17 September. Realizing that defence against both neighbours was impossible, Śmigły-Rydz issued orders for Polish forces to retreat towards Romania and avoid fighting the Soviet aggressors.
    After avoiding capture by Soviet and German troops, on September 18, 1939 Śmigły-Rydz, escaped to Romania and was interned. The Polish government's crossing into Romania prevented Poland from having to officially surrender, and allowed Polish soldiers to carry on fighting against Nazi Germany, though Rydz's flight sparked some

    The last years
    Śmigły-Rydz, as the Commander-in-Chief of Polish Armed Forces, took complete responsibility for Poland's military defeat in September 1939. Rydz was an extremely able Commander on smaller fronts, but was not an experienced strategist in a great conflict. In 1922, in an evaluation of Polish generals, Piłsudski had written about him: "in operational work he displays healthy common sense and a lot of stubborn energy. I could recommend him to everybody as a commander of an army, I am however not sure if he possesses sufficient abilities to function as commander-in-chief in a war between two states."
    During his internment in Romania, Śmigły-Rydz initiated the creation of the Polish underground. This was based on officers who were loyal to the memory of Piłsudski. Still in Romania, on October 27, he relinquished his function as the Commander-in-Chief and Inspector-General of the Armed Forces. This role was assumed by Władysław Sikorski, who was serving in the new Polish government in exile in France (and after 1940 in the United Kingdom). Śmigły-Rydz was transferred from the internment camp to the villa of a former Romanian prime minister in Dragoslavele, from where he escaped on 10 December 1940 and crossed illegally into Hungary.
    His flight to Hungary and rumours about his planned return to Poland were a source of considerable displeasure to his rival Sikorski, now Prime Minister. Sikorski had been in opposition to Śmigły-Rydz and Piłsudski from the time of the 1926 May Coup. Sikorski declared in a telegram to General Stefan Grot-Rowecki, leader of the Armia Krajowa (AK) underground resistance in Poland: "the Polish Government will regard a sojourn of the Marshal in Poland as a sabotage of its work in the country. The Marshal must as soon as possible move to some country of the British Empire". However Śmigły-Rydz left Hungary on October 25, 1941, and travelling through Slovakia reached Poland. On October 30, in strict secrecy, Śmigły came back to Warsaw to participate in the resistance movement as a common underground soldier, thus voluntarily suspending his rank as Marshal of Poland. He managed to contact Grot-Rowecki, but remained incognito. He died suddenly of heart failure on December 2, 1941, only five weeks after his arrival in Warsaw. He was buried in Warsaw under his alias "Adam Zawisza". His tombstone at the Powązki Cemetery bore that name until 1991. A new tombstone was erected by the people of Warsaw in 1994.
    Awards
    Polish Decorations
    Order of the White Eagle, Commander and Knight of Virtuti Militari, Grand Cross, Grand Officer and Officer of Order of Polonia Restituta, four times Cross of the Valiant, Golden Cross of Merit (Złoty Krzyż Zasługi), and Cross of Independence with Swords.
    Foreign decorations
    Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania, Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy, Grand Cross, Grand Officer and Commander of the French Order of the Legion of Honour, Grand Officer of the Finnish Order of the White Rose, Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle (Yugoslavia) and Order of Saint Sava of Yugoslavia, Grand Cross of the Hungarian Order of Merit, Grand Cross of the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun, Knight of Latvia's highest military award, Lāčplēsis Military Order, (the Order of the Bearslayer), Pulaski Medal (USA) and Italian Cross of Military Merit.
    Honorary Titles



    Edward Rydz-?mig?y - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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  8. #38

    Default Re: photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

    Hi Mariusz,

    Great post, and a very nice colour portrait.

    Here's one of my favorite photographs of Śmigły-Rydz, delivering an impassioned speech. The image is very crisp and sharply focused showing good uniform details.

    My understanding was this was taken in 1936 in Katowice. The photograph was taken by well known pre-war military photographer Witold Pikiel. This is an original print, stamped on the reverse Reprodukcja Wzbroniona / W. PIKIEL Fotograf-Ilustrator / Wojskowego Instytutu Naukowo - Oświatowego/ Warszawa, ul. Nowy Świat 23/25 (Reproduction Prohibited / W. PIKIEL Photographer-Illustrator / Army Educational Institute / Warsaw, New World Street 23/25).

    Regards,
    Tony
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    All thoughts and opinions expressed are those of my own and should not be mistaken for medical and/or legal advice.

    "Tomorrow hopes we have learned something from yesterday." - John Wayne

  9. #39

    Default Re: photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

    Several more original Pikiel prints from the collection.

    Regards,
    Tony
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    All thoughts and opinions expressed are those of my own and should not be mistaken for medical and/or legal advice.

    "Tomorrow hopes we have learned something from yesterday." - John Wayne

  10. #40

    Default Re: photos of Second Republic 1918-1939

    Hi everyone,

    Here are a few more awarded the Commanders Cross of the Order Virtuti Militari.

    General Broni Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski

    General dyw. Jan Edward Romer
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