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Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

Article about: Great guide. Very helpful, Nick ! Screaming Eagle - all the manufacturers stamped the liners on the inside, at the center of the crown........

  1. #1
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    Cool Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

    INFANTRY LINERS

    Frontal eyelet hole

    A true US WWII M-1 helmet liner can be identified through the frontal eyelet hole. If an M-1 helmet liner has one, there's a good chance it was made during WWII.

    Note: US liners produced in the 1950s and some European copies still retained that feature and some modern dealers drill them into the M1958 liners.

    Cotton HBT suspension cloth

    The majority of US WWII M-1 helmet liners had a cotton herring bone twill (HBT) cloth suspension. The HBT cloth was either a single or multiple weave pattern. This HBT suspension was held tightly within the M-1 helmet liner by rivets and a series of triangular "A" washers. The three upper suspension bands were joined together with a shoe string. This way the wearer could adjust the fit.

    Note: A true US WWII M-1 helmet liner would always have this string tie. Later M-1 helmet liners made in the 1960s did not.

    Back & nape strap

    A distinguishing feature of the US WWII M-1 helmet liner was the back-strap. The back-strap was a single piece of cloth that had four female-ended snaps within it. It was riveted to the back of the liner near the base of the wearer's neck (also called the "nape").

    The back-strap was used in conjunction with the "nape" strap. The nape strap was another method used to guarantee a snug fit for the M-1 helmet and liner. The nape strap came in both single and two-piece varieties.

    Size adjustment

    US WWII M-1 helmets and liners were "one size fits all". The M-1 helmet shells were one standard size. The M-1 helmet liners were too, but were adjustable. Through three methods the wearer could adjust the fit of the M-1 helmet liner; through the top string tie, nape strap/back-strap and headband adjustment.

    Note: The "nape" strap was another item left out of the 1960 era production. Pictured to the right is a two-piece "nape" strap adopted around 1943.

    Internal garter studs

    A major identifier of a WWII US M-1 helmet liner are the internal garter studs. On each side of the M-1 helmet liner were two small posts attached by an external cap. These studs were for the fastening of the leather liner chinstrap. This feature was retained in the US M-1 helmet liner all the way up to the M-1958 and disappeared in the early 1960s.

    Note: These garter studs were made from both steel and brass, depending on the time period of manufacture.

  2. #2
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    Default Re: Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

    AIRBORNE LINERS

    "A" straps & chincups

    The M-1 helmet liner used for airborne troops is easily identified by two inverted "A" straps. These "A" straps are riveted beneath the HBT suspension and were made from a heavy duty webbing. The "A" straps were used to fasten a leather or cloth chincup underneath the parachutist's chin.

    The leather chincup was the first model. It had five grommet holes and was formed from a single piece of leather. The leather chincup was often lined with a piece of chamois for comfort. This style was most often seen with the earlier M-2 paratrooper helmets. Some chamois pieces were sewn in and others glued.

    The cloth variety of chincup was introduced late in the war for the M-1C paratrooper helmet. There has been some debate about whether or not this style had four or five grommet holes.

    Internal para snaps

    One way the US Army kept the M-1 helmet shell and liner together while the wearer was jumping from airplanes was to fit all airborne liners with an internal set of snaps. These were set on the sides of the liner and would fasten to the a corresponding chinstrap tab that was sewn on the M-1 helmet shell.

    Note: These snaps were made of either brass or steel, depending on the time period produced

    "Factory 'A' straps"

    A debate that has emerged among collectors of US WWII airborne liners concerns whether they were made into airborne liners by the manufacture or in the field by US Army parachute riggers. This concerns "war time" US WWII paratrooper liners only. The distinction between the two can be detected on how (thus at what point in time) the A straps were set within the helmet liner suspension system.

    "Factory 'A' straps" are literally set underneath the existing suspension

    "Rigger 'A' straps" are set about one inch below the existing suspension with a different set of rivets.

    Note: Post war modification of airborne liners seems to have adopted both methods. I have found many Korean War era liners with "rigger" style A straps and also found M1958 airborne liners with "factory" set A straps.

  3. #3

    Default Re: Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

    Thank for the info,very helpful.

  4. #4
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    Default Re: Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

    (A) THE HOOD RUBBER COMPANY

    Manufactured in Watertown, Massachusetts this “ball winding” manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an unusually patterned shell and by the silver painted “HR” in the crown (worn off in this example). The Hood Rubber Company started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in April 1942. They produced approximately 206,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued production in early 1944 when their contract was not renewed.

    (B) THE ST. CLAIR LINER

    Manufactured in Marysville, Michigan this “low pressure” M-1 helmet liner is identified both by an unusually patterned shell and by the yellow painted “SC” in the crown. The St. Clair M-1 helmet liner started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in April 1942. They produced approximately 1,300,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued production in early 1944 when their contract was not renewed.

    (C) CAPAC MANUFACTURING COMPANY

    Manufactured in Capac, Michigan this “high pressure” manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed “cross” with the words “Capac” in the crown. Capac Manufacturing Company started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in September 1942. They produced approximately between 2,000,000 – 4,000,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued production around August 17 1945 when the war ended.


    (D) FIRESTONE TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY

    Manufactured in Akron, Ohio this “high pressure” manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed “F” in the crown. Firestone Tire and Rubber Company started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in September 1942. They produced approximately 7,500,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued production around August 17 1945 when the war ended.

    (E) INLAND MANUFACTURING DIVISION

    Manufactured in Dayton, Ohio this “high pressure” manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed “INLAND” in the crown. Inland Manufacturing Division started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in September 1942. They produced approximately 1,900,000 M-1 helmet liners and converted about 75,000 liners to airborne configuration. Inland Manufacturing discontinued M-1 helmet liner production in 1943 when their manufacturing services were deemed better used elsewhere.

    (F) INTERNATIONAL MOLDED PLASTICS, INC (IMP)

    Manufactured in Watertown, Massachusetts this “high pressure” manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed “little man” in a circle in the crown. International Molded Plastics, Inc (IMP) started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in September 1942. They produced approximately between 2,000,000 – 4,000,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued producton around August 17, 1945 when the war ended

    (G) MINE SAFETY APPLIANCE (MSA)

    Manufactured in Pittsburgh, Pennslyvannia this "high pressure" manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed "MSA" in the crown. Mine Safety Appliance started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in September 1942. They produced approximately between 2,000,000 - 4,000,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued producton around August 17, 1945 when the war ended

    (H) SEAMAN PAPER COMPANY

    Manufactured in Chicago, Illinois this "high pressure" maufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed "S" in the crown. Seaman Paper Company started delivery to the US Army in September 1942. They produced approximately between 2,000,000 - 4,000,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued production around August 17, 1945 when the war ended.

    (I) WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY

    Manufactured in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania this "high pressure" manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed "W" in the crown (which is still Westinghouse's logo to this day). Westinghouse was the largest M-1 helmet liner producer and had two production divisions; Micarta and Bryant Electric. The Micarta Division produced about 13,000,000 M-1 helmet liners and the Bryant Electric Division about 10,000,000. Westinghouse Electric Company started M-1 helmet liner delivery in May 1942. Westinghouse did have a contract to producce airborne liners and converted an unknown amount to airborne configuration. Westinghouse discontinued production around August 17, 1945 when the war ended.

    (J) MODEL 1951/1952 LINER

    Manufactured by both Capac and Westinghouse (Micarta Division only) these M-1 helmet liners are identical to the WWII liner except that the internal HBT cloth is a dark green olive drab #7. These liners are identified by two types of manufacturer stamps, on set of "W" and "CAPAC" are embossed into the crown and the other is an ink stamp of the word "MICARTA" that is attached to the interior of the liner.

    (K) MODEL 1958 LINER

    The model 1958 M-1 helmet liner marked several changes. The US M-1 helmet liner would no longer be made from compressed strips of duckcloth. It was now made from a laminated nylon (I cannot tell the difference). The liner would retain a suspension made from a different type of suspension cloth that was sturdier. The most notable change was that the distinctive frontal eyelet was removed.
    Attached Images Attached Images            

  5. #5

    Default Re: Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

    This is great ,I just look at all my liners to see what I had.Nice to find out they are all from ww2 plus a inland.

  6. #6
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    Default Re: Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

    glad it was of some use

    INLAND liners are one of the rare & most sort after liner makers

  7. #7

    Default Re: Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

    Quote by NickD View Post
    glad it was of some use

    INLAND liners are one of the rare & most sort after liner makers
    It is not in good condition it was found next to Sainte mere eglise with the helmet.

  8. #8
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    Default Re: Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

    which in that case makes it even better then a good condition one in my eyes

  9. #9

    Default Re: Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

    Quote by NickD View Post
    which in that case makes it even better then a good condition one in my eyes
    Thank you for that.

  10. #10

    Default Re: Rough guide to the US M-1 liner & makers

    Hi Nick, Just had a quick question, where would those stamps for the various manufacturers be located?
    If you have any photo references as well, that would be great.
    Great guide by the way, well done.

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