Espenlaub Militaria - Top
Display your banner here
Page 1 of 2 1 2 LastLast
Results 1 to 10 of 15

Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.

Article about: A bit of history of the Danish M/48 helmet, Part 2 The Diaward Steel Works helmet M/52 and second batch M/48. From about February 1951 the Army started to scout the marked for M1 helmets or

  1. #1

    Default Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.

    A bit of history of the Danish M/48 helmet, Part 2

    The Diaward Steel Works helmet M/52 and second batch M/48.
    From about February 1951 the Army started to scout the marked for M1 helmets or clones, at the best possible price, with the intension of buying 60.000 for the Civil Defense and 50.000 for the Army, 40.000 of which were scheduled go to the Home Guard and paid for by them. The remaining 100.000 needed for the Civil Defense, would take another nearly 15 years to replace. By October 1951 the cheapest were found with Diaward Steel Works in Hong Kong, at a price of about 28 Danish crowns each, including liners (roughly 4$ US in 1950).

    A small team, headed by Captain Dyre from Forsvarets Krigsmaterielforvaltning (Defense War material administration) arrived in Hong Kong on 21. November 1951 to inspect samples. They brought with them guns, ammunition and explosive, to make extensive tests on the helmets. They would undergo the same tests as the original US M1 helmets underwent in 1948/1949, which details are unknown to me. The entire trip where paid and sponsored by Diaward Steels Works.

    While Dyre’s evaluation turned out favorable, there was some public concerns that these helmets was “just” old WW2 surplus US helmets. Which was rather strange, since just years previously the M/48 helmets where introduced of only old WW2 US surplus M1 helmets! As this was the cold war and the Korean war in progress, another concern was that this Hong Kong firm had previously sold helmets to communistic China or where using Chinese steel. The British Hong Kong government made a statement that Diaward had never sold helmets to China and that the steel was special steel. “Special”, likely a term used, when you do not know or do not want to tell. Either way, based on Dyre’s evaluation a deal was struck and 110.000 of these helmets where produced for the Danish Defense and Civil Defense.

    They came in two versions, and Army version and a Civil Defense version. They began being distributed to the Army / Home Guard and Civil Defense in late 1952. The Army already having the M/48 simply enrolled the new batch as another batch of the M/48 helmet. The Civil Defense not having the helmet, and a different supply system, enrolled the helmet as the M/52 Staalhjelm (M/52 Steel Helmet).

    Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.

    Image 1 : Diaward Steel Works advertisement from 1955.
    Image 2 : From a Diaward Steel Works company folder, late 60s or 70s.
    Image 3 : Soldier from the Royal Lifeguards on rout to United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF), 2. May 1957, clearly wearing a Diaward shell judging by the chinstrap. Possible a Diaward liner also. Courtesy The Danish royal library, digital collection.

    Diaward shells
    These Diaward helmets are relative easy to spot. First the shells, they are all fully magnetic, the shell, the rim, the bails, the rivets and adjustment bar on the chinstraps. The only thing that is not magnetic is the J-hook and buckle on the chinstraps; they are made of a painted copper alloy (brass). When the paint is worn of, white zinc oxidation can occur. The rim is jointed in the back, and overlap by up to a centimeter, a very characteristic feature of the shell.

    The shell is made of steel. Which type of steel alloy I do not know. Nevertheless, plenty of iron and plenty of carbon no doubt. Whether chromium (for it anti-corrosive properties) is present or how much, in the steel, is unknown to me. The shell rusts. It forms the typical irregular layer of red ferric oxide when the raw metal is exposed to air or water for prolonged time. Meaning it rusts in spots, and does not form an all coating rust layer, as raw iron would in a very short time.

    Two different types of bails are used. Generally called the Army type and Civil Defense type, but mixes has occurred during production. You will find Army bail types on Civil Defense shells and vice versa.

    The Civil defense shell is gray, including gray chinstraps (a gray version of the green O.D#3) and has US style bails. The Civil Defense gray shells comes in a number of different shades, some of them quite dark, even to the point that it can be mistaken for Army green.

    The Army shell is dark green (darker than O.D#7), including chinstraps (O.D#3), and has quite a unique bail type. Never seen it on any other M1 clone helmet. I know Diaward used a third bail style also, quite similar to the late 50s Linnemann Schnetzer clones or the 60s Ulbrichts clones. This third style bail is not found on the Danish helmets, but is common in Southeast Asian countries. Might be how Diaward shells looked like in the later 50s?

    Both shells (Civil and Army versions) has a sand texture, however the Army version feels like a fine-grained sandpaper, grain 400-500 I guess, while the Civil defense version feels a tiny bit rougher, and also looks it. It is minimal difference, but the dark gray CF versions feels almost like the Army version. Might be the paint that is the issue. If feels like a thicker layer where applied.

    The Army version has no markings whatsoever, not even an ink stamp from Forsvarets Krigsmaterielforvaltning (FKF) or Forsvarets Materielintendantur (FMI).

    The Civil Defense has a hand stamped serial number on the inside of the rim, in the back, usually slightly to the right side, but can also be found on the left side. These numbers are stamped after the shells were painted, and will likely display signs of rust. Army helmets might have been repainted several times in its lifetime (common), some of the Civil Defense helmets have also, though much less common. While a repaint job is traceable all over the helmet, it is partially easy to spot at the joint rim and the stamped serial number. Who stamped them is unknown to me, but I suspect it was the Civil Defense, and not the manufacture.

    In theory, these should run from 1-60000. I have seen about 500-45000 numbers, in three, four and five digits. However, I have seen one single helmet stamped with a 79000 number. This might be a stamp mistake (or a read mistake on my part), or it might be that the Civil Defense actually received more than 60000 helmets? This would be strange since Ministry of the Interior applied the finance Committee (finansudvalget) – which is the Danish Parliament (Folketing) control organ for public spending – for 1.674.000 crowns to spend on 60.000 helmets for the Civil Defense, granted 28. November 1951.

    They Civil Defense shells also have CF (Civilforsvaret) with a crown on top, ink stamped inside the dome. Nearly all have this ink stamp, but not 100%! Usually it is in black ink, - something like bold Arial typeface (Arial was not invent until 1982, so it is not that one). They would also be using white and red/orange color in that same typeface. In later 50s and the 60s, blue became dominating, in something like a Times New Roman typeface. They still used the bold white/black/red/orange Arial typeface later also, along with blue or black Times New Roman.
    The chinstraps are made of tightly woven cotton.

    The shells are colored either Army green (O.D#3) or Civil Defense gray (a gray version of O.D#3). The chinstrap are rivet in place, one on each bail, and two rivets by the J-hook. Note only the top rivet (towards the bail) go all the way through to the other side. The lower (towards the J-hook) has the reverse side hidden under the long loop. The J-hook where also attached with a loop, which means the rivet had to go through four layers of cotton. Apparently, it could not do that, so it where hidden inside the big loop.

    These chinstrap rivets are colored either Army dark green (darker than O.D#7) or Civil Defense gray (a gray version of O.D#7). They will rust if the paint is gone, which is very common, either partly or completely. If you find them in the same rivet size, either looking “silver”-plated or “brass”-plated but still magnetic, they are later replacements. More about that later, under part 6.

    Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.
    Image 1 : Left a Civil Defense shell and right an Army shell
    Image 2 : A stack of Civil Defense shells. Note the chinstraps. Some have been rivet modified and one has a new (US original) one applied

    Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.
    Image 1 : The two bail versions found on Danish Diaward shells. Left the Army version, right the Civil Defense version. They are both magnetic, both holder and loop ring. Take note of the very small loop on the Army version.
    Image 2 : Left, the third Diaward bail type, not found on Danish Diaward helmets, but common in Southeast Asian countries. Compare to the German 1957 Linnemann Schnetzer bail (middle) and the Austrian 1963 Ulbrichts bail (right). Note that the Diaward bail is magnetic, while the German and Austrian are not.

    Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.
    Image 1 : The jointed rim in the back of the shell. It overlaps. From left to right. Army version (green) and three times Civil Defense versions (gray). The second Civil Defense has been repainted. The last being the very dark gray version.
    Image 2 : Different aspects of the chinstrap. Note the ball part of the Ball-and-clevis release system, shown in the bottom center. This is a post-purchase modification. They do not original come with this, and the new hook for the Ball-and-clevis release system is never mounted. The ball is made of blackened magnetic steel.

    Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.
    Image 1 : Left side chinstraps. Right Army version (green). Left Civil Defense version (gray). Army version is missing its J hook.
    Image 2 : Seriel numbers on the rim (inside the shell) of Civil Defense shells.

    Diaward liners
    It is assumed that Diaward Steels Works produced the liners for these Diaward shells. This enamelware company also sold gasmasks, so they had some experience with other plastic/resin products, thus production of liners for helmets seems reasonable. A third party involvement might also be assumed.

    The liners for these Diaward helmets looks at first glance very similar to the original US. Like a late war liner. They too are made of a cotton-like material, socked in a phenol formaldehyde resin mixture, something like Bakelite, formed under high pressure and heat. Gives them a reddish-brown star-like shape appearance on the inside. When I say star-like, do note that appearance can be vastly different. Many are almost just a dark reddish-brown color on the inside. They do however have a very distinct smell. If the liners have been lying unused on depot for many years, you are not in doubt about the smell. Used liners, that have gotten some air, you may have to put your nose close to the liner, to smell it.

    The liners have an outside surface that feels smoother than it looks. A clear sandy texture can be observed, but feels much less so. Almost a smooth surface, but not completely. They come only in Army dark green (darker than O.D#7) very similar to the Army shell. It is only a thin layer of color and the cotton structure is observable within the sandy texture. The very common Civil Defense gray, is paint applied on top of the manufactures dark green color. It is assumed that the Danes applied gray paint to them. This gray color obscures the cotton structure. The liners have a tendency to flake on the outside when struck. Both small and large flakes, like paint not attached properly to a material. Once you get a hole, you might be able to peel off larger parts. It will expose the resin socked cotton structure. The rim of the liner is rough cut.

    Most pieces of metal in the liner is magnetic, but not everything. Things that are meant to be detachable / moving, the nape strap segma snaps, the chinstrap segma snaps on the liner and ventilation hole rivet, are not made of steel, but made of a copper-alloy (brass). Only the actual fitting parts are of brass, the other side of that part is always magnetic steel.
    The ventilation rivet; while common describes as a ventilation hole, it is actually for attaching insignias / rank. Not much ventilation will occur with this small hole. This rivet is made of a copper-alloy (brass), and painted green on the outside. The inside is left shiny. Often the paint will be worn off.

    The two inside segma snaps where the chinstrap attaches to, is also made of a copper-alloy (brass), but it is blackened, not painted. The outside of these are painted magnetic steel. The two pairs of male segma snaps on the nape strap is also made of blackened brass, both sides of them, as well as the four female counterpart on the nape suspension. The backside of these female snaps is a blackened magnetic steel rivet.

    Everything else is magnetic. All other rivets, both sides, A-washer, sweatband alligator clips and adjustment and liner chinstrap adjustment, including the two aglet on the shoelace cord in the dome of the liner shell.

    The liner interior is very standard. You got the webbing suspension, attached to the liner with six blackened steel A-washers. The suspension is held together with a thin shoelace cord in the dome, with an aglet in either end. You got the nape suspension attached to the liner with three blackened steel A-washers, with the actual nape strap detachable via two pairs of segma snaps on either end of the small cotton band. The sweatband, made of the same cotton band as the other suspension, with a machine sawn attached brown leather band, is attached to the suspension via six blackened steel alligator clips. After extensive wear, this brown leather band gets a golden / bronze shine to it. The chinstrap is of brown leather too, with a smooth surface. The underside of the chinstrap is not so smooth and is a very light brown color. Both rivets on the chinstrap are painted, not blackened.

    All rivets are the same size. This includes the ten rivets on the outside, as well as the four on the backside of the nape suspension and the two on the chinstrap. This very characteristic feature of same rivets size makes it very identifiable from the outside. Original US liners have a larger rivet for the chinstrap. The ten rivets on the outside and the two on the chinstrap are painted dark green. The four on the backside of the nape suspension are not painted, but blackened.

    Default the Army has green (O.D#3) webbing, while the Civil Defense is gray (a gray version of O.D#3). However, it is possible that mix-up occurred already from the beginning. Since the outside of the liner only comes in Army dark green, and the difference between Army liners and Civil Defense liners only exist in the color of the inside webbing, it is possible that some arrived at the wrong places already from the beginning. This is based on that some liners having gray Civil Defense webbing do not have a CF marking. On the other hand, some liners having Army green webbing are painted gray on the outside and have received a CF stamp. This might also have occurred later.
    Beside the CF ink stamp, no other markings, stamped or in ink are in the liners. The Army has, as with the shell, not marked the liner in any way. It must however be said that on some Civil Defense liners, the ink stamp is not in the liner shell, but on the webbing.

    he liner in its default shape fits purely into steel shell. It is simply excessively lose. It is almost as it is designed with a helm net in mind, to hold it better in place. It disappears easy up into the shell, leaving very little to be seen from the outside. On that note, quite a few have had prolonged pressure applied to the sides, making them slightly oval. This may be unintentionally, and simply a storage issue, but it makes them fit much more tightly in the steel shell. The 1958 introduced plastic liner has the reverse problem; it is almost too big for this shell and if not forcefully pushed in, will stick out and be viewable from the outside. The 1963 introduced second plastic liner has the same problem as the Diaward liner (for this shell). Almost to lose too.

    Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.
    Image 1-2-3 : a Diaward Civil Defense liner

    Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.
    Image 1 : Different aspects of the liner. From top left to bottom right. 1) A-Washer. 2-3) A compare between original (right) Diaward liner chinstrap and the replacement (left) often used. Note the light underside color and the very tight fit of the triangle that attaches to the liner. Also, note the rivets are painted on the original and same size as all other rivets, but blackened steel on the replacement. 4) Sweatband, when used, appears with a shin of bronze. 5) A segma snaps for the chinstrap, though the chinstrap does not have the intended counterpart, but a steel triangle. 6) Inside of the “ventilation” rivet. 7) Two of the segma snaps on the nape strap suspension. The shown side is made of brass, while the other side is magnetic steel. 8) Shoelace cord with aglet. Note the original shoelace cord is much thinner than later replacements / US and those in the later plastic liners. 9) Nape strap band. 10-11) Sweatband adjustment. 12) Backside rivets of the nape strap suspension. Blackened magnetic steel, rather than painted. 13) Outside rivet, painted magnetic steel. 14) Nape strap suspension. 15) Outside rivet.
    Image 2 : Webbing pattern inside the liner. Both images are Civil Defense gray, the left more true to actual color; they are just taken in different light to highlight structure of the pattern. Looks very similar to the webbing pattern used in US Inland liners. No other later webbing replacement for liners in Denmark has this pattern.

    From Forsvarsgalleriet
    Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.
    Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.
    Click to enlarge the picture Click to enlarge the picture Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet.  
    Attached Images Attached Images Danish M/48 helmet Part 2 (1951-1952), second batch, The Diaward M1 Helmet. 

  2. #2

    Default

    Superb Thread Thank You!

  3. #3

    Default

    Hello,

    Very interesting. Very good article. Mange tak.

    Did Denmark in 1957 procure helmets from Linnemann-Schnetzer KG, Ahlen?

    Best Regards

  4. #4

    Default

    Very informative thread ,Thank you for taking the time to post up

  5. #5

    Default

    Thanks for posting.

  6. #6

    Default

    I think there’s a book in there!

    Thank you

  7. #7

    Default

    Quote by Sleepwalker View Post
    Hello,

    Very interesting. Very good article. Mange tak.

    Did Denmark in 1957 procure helmets from Linnemann-Schnetzer KG, Ahlen?

    Best Regards
    Yes they did, i have seen 1957, 1958 and 1962 versions. I have looked though 1000 of helmets, but have not seen LS from 1959, 1960 and 1961, yet!. From 1963 helmets are U.SCH.
    I’ll be posting part3 (glastic helmet) and part4 (m/58 &m/63 liner plus LS and U.SCH shells) soon.

  8. #8

    Default

    Excellent thread - how could I have missed it back in June? I'm so glad you flagged it up on another thread. The 48 is an object of real interest for me - I've spent more time than was sensible trying to work it out and now you have provided many of the answers. Great stuff - this is Proper Collecting! There are a few people who style themselves as 'advanced collectors' who don't know even a small percentage of this.

  9. #9

    Default

    Quote by Greg Pickersgill View Post
    Excellent thread - how could I have missed it back in June? I'm so glad you flagged it up on another thread. The 48 is an object of real interest for me - I've spent more time than was sensible trying to work it out and now you have provided many of the answers. Great stuff - this is Proper Collecting! There are a few people who style themselves as 'advanced collectors' who don't know even a small percentage of this.
    The diaward helmet has long been confuse for a Danish produced product by glud & marstrand - including myself. It is not. That’s actually what got me working on this in the first place. Denmark did not produce any M1 clones. The bought the shells and produced liners (from 58 on). On that note, have still not managed to find out for sure who actual manufacture the plastic shells - but I got approved access to military docs now. Weeee! DKI as listed on many webpages is a good take for the actual manufacture of the plastic shell. We’ll see! The reason there is no markings in the M/58 plastic liners is because FKF is the producer, but they got the individual part manufactured external.

  10. #10

    Default

    This is all great stuff...thank you soooooo much!

    Please keep it coming!!

Page 1 of 2 1 2 LastLast

Similar Threads

  1. 10-31-2020, 12:11 AM
  2. 06-22-2020, 12:13 AM
  3. Q helmet batch number

    In Steel Helmets
    02-27-2018, 08:58 PM
  4. Helmet batch numbers

    In Steel Helmets
    07-08-2016, 02:27 PM
  5. Helmet batch numbers

    In Steel Helmets
    10-08-2014, 03:51 PM

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
1944shop.com - Down
Display your banner here